SAC

GENERAL BIOLOGY 1407

LECTURE TEST #2

NERVOUS SYSTEM, SENSE ORGANS, ENDOCRINE SYSTEM, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, and
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

Directions: For each of the following questions, select the best answer.

  1. Each is a function fo the neuroglia or glail cells except:
  1. form insultating sheaths
  2. carry out phagocystosis
  3. send messages by conducting nerve impulses
  4. line cavities fo brain and spinal cord
  1. The first part of a neuron to send a signal is the:
  1. cell body
  2. dendrite
  3. axon
  4. synapse
  1. Neuroglia means:
  1. nerve glue
  2. nerve cell
  3. neurotransmitter
  4. synaptic nerve
  1. Myelin is a laminated lipid sheath substance affecting:
  1. transmission fo nerve axon impulses
  2. synaptic transmission
  3. nerve regeneration
  4. nerve locations
  1. A"bundle fo axons" in the CNS is a:
  1. neuron
  2. nerve
  3. tract/ pathway
  4. brain
  1. A normal resting membrane potential os an unmyelinated nerve fiber is:
  1. –70mV
  2. –10mV
  3. +10mV
  4. +70mV
  1. Select the INCORRECT statement:
  1. ions move across the neuron membrane is facilitated diffusion
  2. the resting membrane of a neuron si more permeable to potassium than sodium
  3. large negative protiens inside the neuron can’t diffuse out
  4. the neuron membrane is not permeable to chloride ions
  1. Changing the resting membrane potential into the nerve impulse is a (n):
  1. resting membrane potential
  2. discharge fo neurotransmitter
  3. action potential
  4. threshold level
  1. Repolarization fo a neuron membrane is due to the movement fo ________ions.
  1. Sodium
  2. Calcium
  3. Chloride
  4. Potassium
  1. The action potential begins with a threshold stimulus followed by an inflow or rush of ______ ions.
  1. sodium
  2. calcium
  3. chloride
  4. potassium
  1. During the absolute refractory period, a neuron:
  1. transmits impulses normally
  2. transmits impulses more rapidly
  3. can’t transmit another impulse
  4. can transmit another impulse IF stimulated intenesly
  1. Select the correct description fo saltatory-conduction.
  1. continous conduction
  2. characteristic of unmyelined neurons
  3. only the nodes depolarize along a myelinated fiber
  4. requires more energy than nosaltatory conduction
  1. The all-or-none law refers to action potential in a:
  1. nerve
  2. neuron/ nerve cell
  3. muscle/ muscle fiber
  4. bone
  1. Which one of these terms does not refer to the same type fo structure as the other three?
  1. motor end plate
  2. neuromuscular junction
  3. axon
  4. synapse
  1. The function fo synapatic vesicles is to:
  1. provide energy
  2. store neurotransmitter
  3. develop an impulse
  4. release enzymes
  1. An electrical synapse is found between each of the following except:
  1. axon & cell body
  2. axon & axon
  3. dentrites and dentrites
  4. 2 cell bodies
  1. The opening fo sodium channels ______ a neuron.
  1. repolarizes
  2. depolarizes
  3. desensitizes
  4. no effect
  1. About _____ different neurotransmitters are known.
  1. 60
  2. 100
  3. 150
  4. 200
  1. Each is true fo gamma-amino butyric (GABA) except:
  1. found in brain
  2. found in spinal cord
  3. excitatory transmitter
  4. inhibitory transmitter
  1. A circuit fo neurons refers to:
  1. electrical wiring
  2. specific pathways
  3. one neuron
  4. a group fo synapses
  1. Each si a hindbrain structure except the:
  1. cerebellum
  2. pons
  3. medulla
  4. cerebrum
  1. One function fo the "cerebellum" is
  1. auditory reflexes
  2. hearing
  3. integrates the apropiate contractions fo skeletal muscles needed for smooth, coordinated movements
  4. circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
  1. Each is a structure fo the "forebrain" except:
  1. cerebrum
  2. thalamus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. cerebellum
  1. The cerebral cortex is:
  1. inner gray matter
  2. inner white matter
  3. outer gray matter
  4. outer gray matter
  1. Select the outermost layer fo meniges:
  1. arachnoid mater
  2. dura mater
  3. pia mater
  4. subarachnoid space
  1. The function fo the "choroid plexes" is to:
  1. absorb cerebrospinal fluid
  2. secrete cerebrospinal fluid
  3. absorb whole blood
  4. secrete whole blood
  1. There are __ pairs fo "cranial nerves".
  1. 12
  2. 24
  3. 31
  4. 62
  1. There are ___ pairs fo "spinal nerves".
  1. 12
  2. 24
  3. 31
  4. 62
  1. Select the incorrect association for spinal nerve pairs:
  1. cervical -7
  2. thoracic – 12
  3. lumbar –5
  4. sacral –5
  1. The best description for the automatic NS is:
  1. afferent, skeletal muscles
  2. afferent, viscera
  3. efferent, skeletal muscles
  4. efferent, viscera
  1. Each is true fo receptor cells except:
  1. absorb energy
  2. produce a receptor potential
  3. carry out a response
  4. transduce energy
  1. Each is a meaningful stimulus for mechnoreceptors except:
  1. touch
  2. light
  3. gravity
  4. pressure
  1. Vibratory sense and touch pressure is the change mainly affecting the _____ corpulse.
  1. lamellated pacinian
  2. Ruffini
  3. Merkel
  4. Krause
  1. Turning the body rapidly mainly activates the:
  1. cochlea
  2. semicircular canals
  3. utricle
  4. saccule
  1. Accommodiation depends mainly on the action of the:
  1. retina
  2. sclera
  3. ciliary muscle
  4. choroid layer
  1. The function fo the iris is to:
  1. form images
  2. detect light stimuli
  3. control the size fo th pupil
  4. produce pigment
  1. Rods and cones are part of the:
  1. cornea
  2. sclera
  3. retina
  4. choroid
  1. The next structure to send an impulse after activation fo the retina is the:
  1. cerebral cortex
  2. vitreous body
  3. lens
  4. optic nerve
  1. The three types fo cones for color perception are:
  1. red, yellow, brown
  2. red, green, yellow
  3. orange, red, brown
  4. blue, green, red
  1. The fovea or fovea centralis fo the retina:
  1. has the highest concentration of rods
  2. has the highest concentration of cones
  3. is where the optic nerve exits from the eye
  4. si the site where blood supplies the eye
  1. Which statement describes the aqueous humor?
  1. watery, fills posterior cavity (anterior & posterior chambers)
  2. watery, fills anterior cavity (anterior & posterior chambers)
  3. thick substance, fills posterior cavity
  4. thick substance, fills anterior cavity
  1. Each is true fo endocrine glands except:
  1. produce hormones
  2. secretes hormones into tissue fluids
  3. target tissue can’t be another endocrine gland
  4. target tissue can be a bone or a kidney

 

  1. Each is a chemical group fo hormones except:
  1. steroids
  2. monosacchairides
  3. amino acid derivatives
  4. peptides or proteins
  1. Prostoglands are hormones like substances derived from:
  1. amino acids
  2. sugars
  3. steroids
  4. fatty acids
  1. The parathyroid glands regulate the concentration fo ___ in the blood.
  1. iodine
  2. calcium phosphate
  3. iron
  4. copper
  1. Mechanism of hormone control called Cyclic-AMP si best described as a:
  1. primary messenger
  2. secondary messenger concept
  3. steroid
  4. protein
  1. Which hormone is not secreted from the "anterior" lobe fo the pituitary?
  1. growth hormone (GH)
  2. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  3. oxytocin
  4. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  5. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  1. Which brain region directly signals the anterior pituitary?
  1. corpus callosum
  2. thalamus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. cerebullum
  1. The posterior lobe of the pituitary releases ____ hormone.
  1. 2
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5
  1. The result fo a deficiency of growth hormone can be:
  1. acromegaly
  2. gigantism
  3. dwarfism
  4. hypoglycemia
  1. Thyroid hormones stimulate the:
  1. overall body metabolic rate
  2. rate fo spermatogenesis
  3. rate fo oogeneisis
  4. water balacne in the tissues
  1. The action fo thyroid calcitonin is antagonistic to the action fo the?:
  1. adrenal cortex
  2. adrenal medulla
  3. parathyroid glands
  4. gonods
  1. Alpha and beta cells are found in the:
  1. anterior pituitary
  2. posterior pituiarty
  3. pancreatic islets
  1. The effect fo pancreatic glucagon si to:
  1. increase the level of sugar in the blood
  2. decrease the level of sugar in the blood
  3. increase the level fo calium in th blood
  4. regulate water balance
  1. Type I and II deficinecy condition refer to types fo :
  1. diabetes
  2. hyperthyroidism
  3. hypothyriodism
  4. metabolism
  1. Each is a secration fo the adrenal "cortex" except:
  1. androgen or gonocorticoids
  2. mineralocorticoids
  3. epinephrine
  4. glucocrticoids
  1. Aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid regulates the concentration
  1. Calcuim
  2. Sodium/potassium
  3. Chloride ions
  4. ATP
  1. A defincency fo glucocortiods produces ___ disease.
  1. alpha
  2. beta cell
  3. Cushing’s
  4. Addison’s
  1. Each of the following is a step fo food processing except:
  1. absorption
  2. egestion
  3. ingestion
  4. elimination
  1. The innermost lining fo the digestive tract si the:
  1. adventitia
  2. muscularis
  3. mucosa
  4. submucosa
  1. Peristalasis si the:
  1. absorption fo food
  2. chemical degestion fo macromolecules
  3. waves fo muscular contration
  4. elimination fo wastes
  1. Chief cells (zymogensis cells) secrete:
  1. enzyme, pepsinogen, precursor or pepsin
  2. HCL
  3. Intrinsic factor
  4. Extrinsic factor
  1. Most enzymatic digestion takes place in the:
  1. oral cavity
  2. stomach
  3. small intestine
  4. large intestine

 

  1. Each is a function fo the "liver" except:
  1. secretion fo bile
  2. conversion fo excess glycogen to glusoce
  3. conversion fo carbohydrates amd proteins into fat
  4. detoxification fo many poisons
  5. formation fo lipoprotiens, cholestrol, and phospholipids
  1. Pancreatic juice/amylase works on:
  1. carbohydrate starches
  2. lipids
  3. steriods
  4. proteins
  1. Villi function to:
  1. promote physical digestion
  2. promote chemical digestion
  3. increase the surface area fo rteh small intestine
  4. increase the storage capacity of the large intestine
  1. The hormone secretin, from the duodenal mucosa, functions to:
  1. stimulate the gastric glands
  2. stimulate the alkaline products fo the pancreas
  3. stimulate the release fo digestive enzymes
  4. decrease stomach motor activity
  1. The vermiform appendix si a projection of the:
  1. large intestine
  2. small intestine
  3. stomach
  4. rectum
  1. the function fo the hexose glucose is:
  1. energy storage
  2. a fuel for cells
  3. as a major strucural componenet
  4. as a source fo vitamins
  1. Hemoglobin is best described as a :
  1. antibody molecule
  2. respiratory pigment
  3. heart chamber
  4. tube in the lung
  1. the function fo the alveoli is:
  1. voice production
  2. warming fo the air
  3. gas exchange
  4. mucous storage
  1. The tidal volume si normally about ___ ml.
  1. 200
  2. 500
  3. 1000
  4. 2000
  1. CO2 si transported in the blood mainly as:
  1. the free molecule
  2. bound with hemoglobin
  3. the bicarbonate ion
  4. bound with copper
  1. the respiratory center si found in the:
  1. hypothalamus
  2. thalamus
  3. cerbrum
  4. medulla
  1. Pulmonary emphsema is most commom in:
  1. cancer patients
  2. cigartee smokers
  3. deep sea divers
  4. people living at high altitudes