SAC

GENERAL BIOLOGY 1407

LECTURE TEST #4

Internal Defense: Nonspecific defense mechanisms and specific defense mechanisms

Directions: For each question select the best answer.

  1. Each is non specific defense mechanism except:
  1. lysosome action
  2. enzyme action in the stomach
  3. antibody reactions
  4. interferon activity
  1. An antigen is:
  1. a substance normally found in an organism
  2. used to combat infections
  3. used to destroy antibodies
  4. formed by a white blood cell
  5. a substance that can stimulate the immune system
  1. The main effect of histamine is to:
  1. constrict blood vessels
  2. dilate blood vessels
  3. destroy blood vessels
  4. preserve blood cells
  1. Which of the following is the best definition of an antigen?
  1. bacteria
  2. protein
  3. something thatís non-self
  4. vaccine
  5. substance thatís injected into the body
  1. Each is a clinical characteristic of inflammation except:
  1. pain
  2. edema
  3. cold
  4. redness
  1. The vertebrate body has several nonspecific mechanisms or barriers that help prevent pathogenic microorganisms from causing infections. All of the following are barriers except:
  1. acid secretions in stomach
  2. chemicals in sweat
  3. antibodies
  4. mucous in the respiratory tract
  5. neutrophils
  1. A macrophage can phagocytize about ___ bacteria in its lifetime.
  1. 100
  2. 200
  3. 300
  4. 400
  1. Which fo the following is an enzyme found in mucous and tears that can digest bacterial cell walls?
  1. chumotrypsin
  2. glucagon
  3. lymphokines
  4. lysozyme
  5. pepsin
  1. The major function fo a cytotxic T-cell si to:
  1. stimulate macrophages
  2. make anitgens
  3. destroy pathogens on contact
  4. produce antibodies
  1. Pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria can be prevented from establishing an infection by all fo the following except:
  1. Digestion fo the cell wall by lysozyme
  2. Inactivation because the person has been immunized with a vaccine which has allowed him to producve antibodies against the bacterium
  3. A change in pH due to the release fo histamine by basophils at the site fo inflammation can prevent the growth fo bacteria
  4. Destruction fo bacteria by actvated T-cells
  5. Lysis of the bacteia due to the conbined effect fo antibody and complement.
  1. Each is a recognized thyp fo T-cell except:
  1. cytotoxic T cell
  2. helper T-cell
  3. suppressor T-cell
  4. bursal T-cell
  1. Which of the following is/are cytokines?
  1. complement
  2. interferons
  3. interleukin-1
  4. lysozyme
  5. tumor necrosis factor

answers:

    1. 1, 3, & 5
    2. 2, 3, & 4
    3. 1, 2, & 3
    4. 3, 4, & 5
    5. 2, 3, & 5
  1. For B cells, the letter B stands for:
  1. big
  2. bursa
  3. bunion
  4. bone cell
  1. Which pair is mismatched
  1. interferon beta; stimulates cells to produce activiral proteins
  2. leukin-l; fever
  3. tumor necrosis factor; can kill tumor cells and stimulate immune cells to initiate an inflamatory response
  4. cytokine; regulate the activity of nearby cells
  5. interferon gamma; stimulates complement mediated cell lysis.
  1. Thymosin is a (n)
  1. antibody affecting B cells
  2. antibody affecting T cells
  3. hormone affecting B cells
  4. hormone affecting T cells
  1. During the inflammatory response, capillary permeability increases which allows leukocytes to move into the tissue and:
  1. Phagocytize the pathogen
  2. Produce fibrin which can wall off the infected site
  3. Produce antibodies right at the infected site and destroy the infecting organism
  4. Cause pain
  5. Cause redness
  1. In humans, the MHC is called the
  1. HLA
  2. HLU
  3. TAC
  4. TAU
  1. Histamine helps in the establishment of the inflammatory process by:
  1. causing constriction of the precapillary sphincter muscles
  2. causing the expansion of the capillary endothilial cells
  3. stimulating the movement of red blood cells out of the capillary
  4. inhibiting the movement of water and fluids out of the blood into the interstitial fluid
  5. dilating the capillaries in the infected area bring greater number of phagocytic cells
  1. Complement is a
  1. specialized white blood cell
  2. form of interferon
  3. group of proteins
  4. set of antigens
  1. Which of the following is not a lymphocyte?
  1. activated macrophage
  2. cytotoxic T cell
  3. natural killer cell
  4. suppressor T cell
  5. T helper cell
  1. A typical antibody is shaped as the letter
  1. A
  2. B
  3. X
  4. Y
  1. In humans, T-lymphocytes mature in which of the following tissues?
  1. appendix
  2. Bursa of Fabricus
  3. Lung
  4. Thymus
  5. Tonsils
  1. Penicillin can stimulate the immune response once it
  1. attacks viruses
  2. attacks bacteria
  3. is degraded
  4. is converted to interferon
  1. In humans, B-lymphocytes mature in which of the following tissues?
  1. appendix
  2. bone marrow
  3. liver
  4. spleen
  5. thoracic lymph gland
  1. Polypeptide chains for an antibody are held together by _______ bonds
  1. hydrogen
  2. covalent
  3. disulfide
  4. ionic
  1. Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells can kill a cell by
  1. the release of antibodies which can travel to the target cell and kill it
  2. the release of cytokines, perforines, and franzymes
  3. the release of histamine which can stimulate phagocytosis of the target cells
  4. the release of enzymes that kill the target cell by destruction of the MHC antigens
  5. the release of lysozymal enzymes which destroy the target cell
  1. Antibodies are grouped into _______ classes.
  1. three
  2. five
  3. seven
  4. nine
  1. In humand there is a specific group of proteins on the surface of each cell which allow the immune system to distinguish between self and nonself. These are:
  1. antibodies
  2. antigens
  3. cytokines
  4. HLA
  5. The complement system
  1. In humans, about 75% of the antibodies in blood belong to:
  1. IgA
  2. IgB
  3. IgE
  4. IgG
  1. Cell-mediated immunity is due to :
  1. T-cells which can destroy nonself as well as cells in which pathogens are growing
  2. B-cell which help reject foreign antibodies
  3. T-lymphocytes that produce antibodies
  4. Macrophages that produce histamines
  5. Immune lymphocytes that produce histamines
  1. Which antibody is a mediator of allergic responses?
  1. IgA
  2. IgB
  3. IgE
  4. IgG
  1. In order to produce antibody, a mature B lymphocyte must first differentiate into a (n):
  1. antigen presenting cell
  2. macrophage
  3. mast cell
  4. monocyte
  5. plasma cell
  1. To become competent, a B-cell must
  1. be exposed to a particular antigen
  2. be exposed to and antigen-MHC complex
  3. migrate through the Bursa of birds or the bone marrow of humans
  4. be stimulated by interleukin-I
  1. A helper T-cell recognizes the processed antigen from the macrophage due to the presence of _______ on its surface.
  1. antibodies
  2. a hormone
  3. a foreign antigen-MHC complex
  4. interleukins
  5. a permease
  1. Opsonization is the
  1. reaction of antibody with an antigen
  2. coating of pathogens
  3. hemolysis of cells
  4. phagocytosis of microbes
  1. Arrange the following steps in antibody mediated immunity in the proper order.
  1. antigen placed on surface of macrophage
  2. phagocytosis of antigen
  3. T-helper cell aids in presenting processed antigen to B-cell
  4. Contanct with antigen
  5. B-cell differentiate into clone of plasma cells and memory cells
  6. Fragmentation of antigen
  7. Antibodies are produced
    1. 1-2-3-4-7
    2. 4-6-7-3-5
    3. 6-2-1-5-7
    4. 4-6-3-5-7
    5. 3-1-2-6-5
  1. Each is a response of T cells once stimulated except
  1. enlarge in size
  2. clone
  3. give rise to cytotoxic T cells
  4. stimulate complement fixation
  1. Specific immunity differs from non-specific defenses in that specific immunity:
  1. involves mechanical barriers
  2. has no memory
  3. requires the release of histamine
  4. relies on fever to destroy bacteria
  5. involves antibodies
  1. Lymphotoxins are particularly toxic for _______ cells
  1. cancer
  2. white blood cells
  3. red blood
  4. allergic
  1. What cell type facilitates the macrophage in delivering the processed antigen to the B-cell?
  1. monocyte
  2. NK cell
  3. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
  4. T-supressor cell
  5. Helper T-cell
  1. What caracterizes the logarithmic phase of antibody response?
  1. mutation
  2. stabilized growth pattern
  3. rapid growth pattern
  4. slow growth pattern
  1. Which of the following events are common to both antibody mediated and cell-mediated immunity?
  1. killing of the target cells by cytokines
  2. the recognition of MHC antigens on cellular response
  3. the production of memory cells
  4. development of plasma cells
    1. 1 and 3 are correct
    2. 2 and 4 are correct
    3. 3 and 5 are correct
    4. 2 and 3 are correct
    5. 3 and 4 are correct
  1. Injection of a antibodies produced in another organism produces _______ immunity.
  1. natural
  2. nonexistent
  3. active
  4. passive
  1. What class of immuniglobulin molecule can pass through the placenta and passively immunize the developing baby?
  1. IgA
  2. IgD
  3. IgE
  4. IgG
  5. IgM

  1. An individual that has had a disease recieves ____ immunity.
  1. artificial
  2. nonexistent
  3. active
  4. passive
  1. What class of immuniglobulin is normally found in the mucosa of the respiratory tract?
  1. IgA
  2. IgD
  3. IgE
  4. IgG
  5. IgM
  1. The type fo immunity conferred by pregnant women to her fetus is:
  1. artificial active
  2. artificial passive
  3. natural active
  4. natural passive
  1. Which anitbody classes can combine with complement?
  1. IgA 2. IgD 3. IgE 4. IgG 5. IgM
    1. 1 & 3 are correct
    2. 2 & 4 are correct
    3. 3 & 5 are correct
    4. 2 & 3 are correct
    5. 4 & 5 are correct
  1. Antibodies are produced by:
  1. complement B-cells
  2. plasma cells
  3. helper T cells
  4. cytotoxic t-cells
  1. If you have been vaccinated against polio, what type of immunity do you have?
  1. active natural
  2. active artificial
  3. passive natural
  4. passive artificial
  5. cell mediated
  1. The polymorphism fo HLA genes is due to:
  1. incomplete dominance
  2. polygenic inheritance
  3. multiple alleles
  4. 2 alleles
  1. If several months after an initial encounter, one were to have a second contact with an antigen, which fo the following would happen:
  1. nothing beause you are already making antibodies against this antigen
  2. there would be a short decrease in the production fo antibody while the second dose of antigen wwas being neutralized
  3. in a day or two there would be a burst fo anitbody synthesis due to the presence fo memory cells
  4. only IgG antibosy would be produced
  5. the IgM antibody production would continue while the IgG anitbosy production would cease

53. The antibody makeup of a person with type A blood is:

  1. anti-A only
  2. anit-B only
  3. anti-A & anti-B
  4. no anitbody
  1. Active immunity is preferable to passive immunity because active immunity:

1. has a memory 2. Is more specific 3. Is longer lasting

4. attains higher levels fo resistance 5. Attains higher levels fo protection

  1. 1 & 3 are correct
  2. 2 & 4 are correct
  3. 3 & 5 are correct
  4. 2 & 5 are correct
  5. 3 & 4 are correct
  1. Corneal transplants are successful because the cornea
  1. make antibodies
  2. lacks blood vessels
  3. blocks out antigens
  4. is highly supplied with nerves
  1. In the comparision fo active and passive immunity which of the following staements is true only for active immunity?
  1. High levels of resistance are obtained immediately
  2. Absolute resistance is obtained
  3. Resistance develops slowly
  4. Resistance lasts only a few days to a few weeks
  5. There are no memory cells
  1. Each fo the following ia an autoimmune disease except:
  1. Graveís
  2. Huntintonís
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis
  4. Myasthenia gravis
  1. The variable segment at the end fo each peptide chain of an antibody molecule has a amino acid sequence that binds with a specific anitgen. The reason for this unique sequence is:
  1. to provide variability to anitbody molecules
  2. to provide for the attachment of antibody molecules to the specific B cells
  3. because an antibody molecule needs flexibility in orfer to combine with an anitgen
  4. because this is what si used to place the various antibody molecules into 5 classes
  5. because a different amino acid sequence is required to conform to the unique shape fo each antigen
  1. Allergic reactions are often treated with:
  1. histamines
  2. antihistamines
  3. antibodies
  4. complement
  1. Which fo the following can be consequences fo antibodies binding to antigens:
  1. inactivation fo a toxin
  2. formation of cytoxic T cells
  3. stimulation fo phagacytosis
  4. destruction fo tumor cells
  5. activation fo complememt
    1. 1, 3, and 5 are correct
    2. 1, 2, and 3 are correct
    3. 3, 4, and 5 are correct
    4. 2, 3, and 4 are correct
    5. 2, 3, and 5 are correct
  1. Chemicals cytotoxic for cancer cells that are produced by cytotoxic T cells are
  1. leukotrienes
  2. lymphokines
  3. lyophotoxins
  4. lysozymes
  5. thymosin

62.The predominent antibody produced during the primary response is ____ while ____ is produced predominantly in the secondary respone.

    1. IgA; IgE
    2. IgG; IgD
    3. IgM; IgD
    4. IgG; IgM
    5. IgM; IgG
  1. Skin can be grafted from one place on the same individual or his genetically identical twin. However, it usually cannot be grafted to an unrelated person. The phenomenon fo graft rejection si due to the fact that:
  1. grafts canít be given to people with different blood types
  2. grafts act as a nonself antigen and stimulate antibosy production
  3. the MHC determines are different and therefore are regarded as foreign tissue antigens
  4. a body can develop a hypersensitvity reaction against its own tissue
  5. body can release histmine and other chemicals to destroy a foreign tissue
  1. An autoimmune disease is charatized by:
  1. an extreme reaction during the secondary response
  2. poisoning of the lymph tissue by immunosuppressive drugs
  3. rejection fo a skin graft
  4. a viral infection that slowly destroys all of an individuals helper T cells
  5. a hypersensitivity reaction in which the body reacts immunologically against its own tissues
  1. Arrange the following steps fp an allergic reaction in proper order.
  1. allergic sysmptoms appear
  2. allergin binds with IgE
  3. histamine released
  4. IgE combines with the mast cell receptors
  5. Plasma cells sensitized
    1. 1-2-4-5-6-3-
    2. 6-2-3-5-4-1-
    3. 2-5-3-1-4-6-
    4. 6-4-2-5-3-1-
    5. 4-5-3-6-2-1-

Essay. Please select only one to discuss.

  1. Discuss the role for the different chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.
  2. Draw and label an antibody molecule and discuss the function of each part.
  3. Discuss the role of the MHC tissue markers in the presenting of an antigen to a B cell during antibody mediated immunity.

The antigens of the Major Histocompatability complex.

MHC associative recognition-

property of most cytotoxic T cells

of recognizing foreign antigens for the surface of cells