LECTURE TEST #1

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 2402

VERSION 1

THE BLOOD AND DEFENSE MECHANISMS FO THE BODY AND IMMUNE RESPONES:

NON-SPECIFIC AND SPECIFIC

Directions: For each of the following questions or incomplete statements below select the best or most appropriate answer in each case.

  1. Functions of the blood include
  1. transport of nutrients and wastes (like CO2)
  2. aid in maintaining proper acid-base balance, pH=7.4
  3. aids in the regulation of the body temperature
  4. immunlogic reactions-body defense
  5. all of the above
  1. The formed elements of the blood include:
  1. red blood cells and white blood cells
  2. clotting proteins
  3. defense proteins
  4. lipoproteins
  5. all of the above
  1. The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are:
  1. globulins
  2. transport proteins
  3. albumins
  4. lipoprotiens
  5. fibroingens
  1. Plasma proteins that are important in the body defense are the:
  1. albumins
  2. fibrinogens
  3. immunoglobins or serum globulins
  4. metalloprotiens
  5. lipoprotiens
  1. Plasma proteins that are necessary for blood clotting are the :
  1. albumins
  2. fibrinogens
  3. immunoglobulins
  4. metalloprotiens
  5. lipoprotiens
  1. Each of the following statements concerning red blood cells (erythrocytes) is true except one. Identify the excetion.
  1. Red blood cells are biconcave discs
  2. Red blood cells lack mitochondria
  3. Red blood cells have a large nucleus
  4. Red blood cells are specialized for carrying oxygen
  5. Red blood cells can form stacks called rouleax
  1. In adults, erythropoiesis primarily takes place in:
  1. the liver
  2. yellow bone marrow
  3. myeloid tissue
  4. the spleen
  5. the kidneys
  1. A personís blood type is determined by:
  1. the size of the red blood cells
  2. the shape of the red blood cells
  3. the chemical character of the hemoglobin
  4. the presence of specific molecules on the cell membranes
  1. Neutophils are
  1. granular leukocytes
  2. phagocytic
  3. also known as polymorphonuclear leakocytes
  4. the number of specific molecules on the cell membrane
  1. The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the:
  1. neutrophils
  2. esosinophils
  3. basophils
  4. lymphocytes
  5. monocytes
  1. _________ are large phagocytic white blood cells that spend most of their time outside of the blood as fixed and free phagocytic cells.
  1. Neutrophils
  2. Eosinphils
  3. Basophils
  4. Lymphocytes
  5. Monocytes
  1. The white blood cells that are inportant in producing antibodies are the
  1. neutrophils
  2. esosinophils
  3. basophils
  4. lymphocytes
  5. monocytes
  1. _________ involves a complex sequence of steps leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
  1. Vascular spasm
  2. The platelet phase
  3. Retraction
  4. Coagulation
  5. Fibrinolysis
  1. Cells in the bone marrow called megakaocytes form:
  1. erythrocytes
  2. monocytes
  3. lymphocytes
  4. neutrophils
  5. platelets
  1. The waste product bilirubin is formed from
  1. transferrin
  2. globin
  3. heme
  4. hemosiderin
  5. ferritin
  1. Most of the iron extracted from hemoglobin is:
  1. excreted by the kidneys
  2. excreted by the digestive system
  3. degraded by the spleen
  4. stored or recycled
  5. eliminated in the bile
  1. Which of the following situations could result in anemia?
  1. hemorrage
  2. dietary deficiency of iron
  3. lack of vitamin B12 in the diet
  4. disease of the red bone marrow
  5. all of the above
  1. Which of the following would you expect to see in elevated numbers in a peripheral blood sample after donating a pint of blood to the Red Cross?
  1. erythocytes
  2. platelets
  3. reticulocytes
  4. lymphocytes
  5. neutrocytes
  1. Most of the plasma is made up of
  1. urea
  2. electrolytes
  3. proteins
  4. water
  5. formed elements or cells
  1. Plasma makes up __ of the total blood volume in women.
  1. 90 %
  2. 55 %
  3. 60 %
  4. 40 %
  5. 36 %

21. The cell type that can differentiate into all the different formed elements of the blood is the:

  1. myeloblast
  2. megakaryocyte
  3. hemochytoblast
  4. lymphoblast
  5. erythroblast

22. Which one of the following is not true?

  1. a lowered hematocrit may be observed following excessive blood loss
  2. the higher the hematocrit, the lower the viscosity of the blood
  3. increasing the viscosity of the blood makes it more difficult
  4. hematocrits are higher in males than in females
  5. formed elements constitute 45% and the plasma accounts for 55% in a hematocrit

23. The cells that dispose of "old damaged" erythrocytes are the:

  1. platelets
  2. monocytes
  3. macrophages
  4. neutrophils
  5. eosinophils

24. Platelets function in:

  1. phagocytosis
  2. detoxifying foreign proteins
  3. blood clotting
  4. the dissolution of old blood clots
  5. blood typing

25. Males usually have an average of ____ grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood

  1. 25
  2. 18
  3. 12
  4. 9
  5. 5

26. Pernicious anemia is a condition that results from:

  1. the destruction of the red bone marrow
  2. an inability to absorb adequate amount of vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract which seems to depend on a special component of the gastric juice
  3. a deficiency of iron in the blood
  4. polycythemia vera
  5. coagulation of blood

27. Which of the following leukocyte types leave the blood vessels and enter the tissue spaces where they protect the body by phagocytosis of bacteria, fragmented cells and foreign particles?

  1. lymphocytes
  2. basophils
  3. megakaryocytes
  4. neutrophils
  5. reticulocytes

28. The formed elements that actively function in syneresis (process of clot retraction) are the:

  1. neutrophils
  2. basophils
  3. megakaryocytes
  4. neutrophils
  5. reticulocytes

29. The average lifespan of an erythrocyte is:

  1. one week
  2. two months
  3. three years
  4. four months
  5. six months

30. The primary function of albumin in blood plasma is:

  1. to prevent urine from containing protein
  2. to increase the blood osmotic pressure
  3. to assist in the clotting of blood
  4. to serve as a source of antibodies
  5. to provide protein for erythrocytes

31. Possible causes of the formation of thrombi include:

  1. roughened lining of blood vessels
  2. sluggish blood flow
  3. inflammation
  4. both a and b
  5. a, b, and c

32. A danger created by emboli is that they can:

  1. release toxic substances into the blood
  2. interfere with the clotting mechanism
  3. cause the rupture of a blood vessel
  4. become lodged in a major vessel and block blood flow
  5. cause inflammation if they pass through the heart

33. The first leukocytes to arrive at the site of tissue damage are the:

  1. monocytes
  2. macrophages
  3. lymphocytes
  4. neutrophils
  5. megakaryocyte

34. Evidence of large numbers of ______ at the site of tissue injury is often indicative of an allergic reaction or in response to parasitic infections are the:

  1. monocytes
  2. eosinophils
  3. macrophages
  4. lymphocytes
  5. neutrophils

35. Which one of the following is true of interferons?

  1. they are steroids
  2. double stranded DNA is a powerful inducer of interferons
  3. interferons attack the virus particle directly
  4. fibroblasts, leukocytes, and B cells all produce interferons
  5. none of the above is true of interferons

36. Which one of the following is not true of B cell(s)?

  1. they are lymphocytes
  2. they can differentiate into antibody producing cells
  3. they are produced in the thymus and liver
  4. they are found in large numbers in lymph nodes
  5. a bone marrow-derived lymphocyte(s)

37. Which one of the following is true of antibodies?

  1. their constant regions do not vary from one class of antibody to another
  2. antibodies function in the same manner as interferons
  3. they belong to a family of specialized proteins known as globulins
  4. they do not participate in the basic inflammatory response to any great extent
  5. a substance, frequently a protein

38. Humoral (antibodies) immunity is produced by:

  1. effector T cells
  2. mast cells
  3. plasma cells
  4. interferon
  5. phagocytic cells

39. The iron from hemogoblin ultimately ends up in which one of the following substances?

  1. bilirubin
  2. ferritin
  3. transferrin
  4. erythoropoietin
  5. iron-deficiency anemia

40. Anemia would probably have which of the following effects on the level of erythropoietin in the blood?

  1. make it increase
  2. make it decrease
  3. make it remain the same
  4. have no effect
  5. fluctuation up and down

41. Platelets are formed from cells called:

  1. thrombocytes
  2. erythrocytes
  3. granulocytes
  4. megakaryocytes
  5. leukocytes

42. Diapedesis is the:

  1. passage of erythrocytes across the walls of the blood vessels
  2. engulfment of foreign microbes by certain kinds of leukocytes
  3. the production of antibodies by cells
  4. the dissolution of old blood clots by the body
  5. passage of ameboid white blood cells (Wbeís) through an unruptured capillary wall

43. The disease resulting from an inadequate production of erythrocytes due to destruction of red bone marrow is know as:

  1. aplastic anemia
  2. stickle cell anemia
  3. pernicious anemia
  4. iron deficiency anemia
  5. hemolytic disease of the newborn, or HDN

44. Which one of the following is not true of a monocyte?

  1. capable of ameboid movement
  2. capable of diapedesis
  3. develops into macrophages
  4. capable of antibody production
  5. a mononuclear, nongranular leukocyte that is phagocytic

45. Factor VII, calcium ions, and tissue thromboplastin are all involved in activating factor _____.

  1. V (Proaccelerin)
  2. VIII (Antihemophilic factor)
  3. X (Stuart-Prower factor)
  4. XII (Hageman factor)
  5. III (Tissue thromboplastin)

46. Fibrin can be decomposed and blood clots dissolved by:

  1. thromboplastin
  2. plasmin
  3. fibrinogen
  4. serotonin
  5. ADP released by platelets

47. The blood plasma of a person with a A antigen of Erythrocytes (or type A blood) contain which one of the following antibodies?

  1. anti-B antibodies
  2. anti-A antibodies
  3. anti-A and anti-B antibodies
  4. neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies
  5. antibodies against the Rh factor

48. Clumping or erythrocytes due to antibody reaction is known as:

  1. hemostasis
  2. clotting
  3. agglutination
  4. hemolysis
  5. none of the above is correct

49. A person of blood type A could donate blood to a person of which one of the following blood types?

  1. O
  2. AB
  3. B
  4. A
  5. None of these

50. The father is Rh negative and the mother is Rh positive. They have had three children without adverse problems due to Rh factor. The mother is pregnant again. In terms of Rh factor, the risk to the fetus now within the uterus is:

  1. less than before
  2. greater than before
  3. the same
  4. never was a problem
  5. always a concern

51. The plasma of a person with the B antigen contains which one of the following antibodies:

  1. anti-B
  2. anti-A
  3. anti-A and anti-B
  4. neither anti-A nor anti-B
  5. two agglutinogens M and N give rise to three blood groups

52. A person of blood type B could donate blood to persons of which of the following blood types?

  1. O
  2. A
  3. AB
  4. None of the above is correct
  5. A plus Rh positive

53. Which one of the following events of the acute, nonspecific inflammatory response listed below occurs secondly?

  1. phagocytosis by leukocytes and macrophage
  2. aggregation of leukocytes and macrophages at site of injury
  3. slowing of blood flow by dilation and increase permeability of small vessels
  4. margination and pavementing of luekocytes to the vessel surfaces
  5. walling-off of injured area

54. The immunoglobulins that are involved in specific immunity against bacteria and viruses are those that belong to class:

  1. a or IgA
  2. d IgD
  3. e IgE
  4. g IgG
  5. myeloma of Bence-Jones protein

55. Which one of the following is not a sympton or a cause of a sympton of systemic inflammation?

  1. release of pyrogens
  2. edema
  3. granulopoietin production
  4. fever
  5. removal of iron and other trace metals from the plasma

56. Which one of the following is true of interferons?

  1. they speed up cell division of healthy cells
  2. they speed up cell division of abnormal cells
  3. the kind of interferon produced by leukocytes is the most potent against tumors
  4. they stimulate cells that are important in immune surveillance
  5. a virus, a microorganism that can produce a specific disease

57. Which one of the following is not true of T cells?

  1. they are a homogenous group of lymphocytes
  2. they are produced in the thymus gland
  3. they continually circulate through the blood, tissues, and lymph
  4. they are influenced by a hormone called thymosin
  5. they function in cell mediated immune reponses

58. Which one of the following is not an example of passive immunity?

  1. antibodies from the mother moving across the placenta to the fetus
  2. getting a shot of anti-cobra serum
  3. shortly after birth injecting Rh negative mothers with agents that limit Rh sensitization
  4. vaccination, an immunization in which a vaccine is administered to humans
  5. the resistance of and individual to a specific disease, infecting agent or toxic antigen

59. Which of the following is not a lymphatic tissue?

  1. tonsils
  2. spleen
  3. thymus gland
  4. cysterna chyli
  5. thyroid gland

60. The porphyrin ring of heme contains an atom of:

  1. magnesium
  2. calcium
  3. iron
  4. sodium
  5. copper

61. Old, worn and defective red blood cells (Rbeís) are removed from circulation by phagocytic cells in the:

  1. lungs
  2. pancreas
  3. kidneys
  4. spleen
  5. all of the above

 

 

 

 LECTURE TEST #1

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2402

THE BLOOD AND DEFENSE MECHANISMS FO THE BODY-IMMUNE RESPONES

NONSPECIFIC AND SPECIFIC

 

Directions: For each of the following questions or incomplete statements below select the best answer in each case.

 

  1. The normal constituents of the blood plasma include all of the following except:
  1. water
  2. electroctes
  3. proteins
  4. gases (O2)
  5. red blood cells

 

  1. If the hematocrit is 42, what % fo the whole blood is composed of plasma?
  1. 42%
  2. 55%
  3. 58%
  4. 45%
  5. 50%

 

  1. If the hematocrit is 40 then
  1. the volume occupied by the red blood cells is 60% of the total blood volume
  2. the volume occupied by the white blood cell is 40% of the total blood volume
  3. the volume occupied by the red blood cells is 40% of the total blood volume
  4. the volume occupied by the plasma and other cellular elements is 40% of the total blood volume
  5. more than one fo the above are correct

 

  1. The hematocrit;
  1. refers to the percentage of plasma in the blood
  2. refers to the packed cell volume when a blood sample is centrifuged
  3. is increased in aplastic anemia
  4. two fo the above are correct
  5. none fo the above are correct

 

  1. Erythrocytes
  1. do not contain a nucleus
  2. survive an average fo 120 days
  3. do not have the ability to use O2 for energy production despite tha fact that they transport O2 to all the other tissues of the body
  4. contains hemoglobin molecule consist of globin portion and four heme groups
  5. all the above are correct

 

  1. Which is the most abundant type of cellular element in the blood?
  1. Erthyocytes
  2. Neutrophils
  3. Leukocytes
  4. Lymphocytes
  5. Platelets

 

  1. Red blood cells:
  1. oxygen transport
  2. actively participate in the clotting of blood
  3. defend the body against foreign substances
  4. posses all of the organelles found in other cell types

 

  1. Hemoglobin
  1. is found in the nuclei fo red blood cells
  2. contains carbonic anhydrase
  3. will combine mainly with O2 and CO2 and some H+
  4. two fo the above is correct
  5. all of the above is correct

 

  1. Erthropoises
  1. is accomplished in the bone marrow upon stimulation by erythropoietin
  2. is accomplished in the kidneys in response to reduced O2 delivery to the kidneys
  3. refers to an increase in the number of circulating red blood cells
  4. refers to the destruction of erythrocytes by the macrophages
  5. none of the above are correct

 

  1. The hormone, erthropietin:
  1. is secreted by the bone marrow
  2. stimulates res blood cell production and secreated by the kidneys
  3. converts prothrombin to thrombin
  4. is deficient in pernicious anemia
  5. more than one is correct

 

  1. Anemia results from a reduced O2- carrying capacity fo the blood, which can be caused by a decrease in the number of:
  1. leukocytes
  2. lymphocytes
  3. macrophages
  4. erythrocytes
  5. monocytes

 

  1. Which of the following is not a possible cause fo anemia?
  1. Dietary deficienty fo folic acid
  2. Deficieny of intrinsic factor
  3. Malaria
  4. Carbon monixide poisioning
  5. Living at high altitude

 

  1. In aplasitc anemia:
  1. there is ionsufficient hemoglobin formation due to iron deficiency
  2. there is an acute loss of blood
  3. destruction of the bone marrow has occurred as a result of exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation
  4. the stomach secretes inadequate intrinsic factor, which is essential for intestinal absorbtion fo vitamin B12
  5. there is increased fragility of the erythrocytes cell membrane

 

  1. White blood cells:
  1. are the more abundant type of blood cell
  2. do not have nuclei
  3. are actually only cell fragments
  4. defend the body against foreign invasion
  5. are found only in the blood

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of white blood cells?
  1. Activation of factor XII, which triggers the clotting cascade
  2. Production fo antibodies
  3. Destruction of cancer cells
  4. Phagocytosis of foreign invaders
  5. Phagocytosis of cellular debris

 

  1. Basophils:
  1. contain granules that preferntially take up an basic blue dye.
  2. Leave the blood the become macrophages
  3. Synthesize and store histamine and heparin
  4. Two of the above are correct
  5. All are correct

 

  1. An increase in the circulating number of _____ is associated with parasite infestations.
  1. neutrophils
  2. eosinophils
  3. basophils
  4. lymphocytes
  5. monocytes

 

  1. Neutrophils frequently accompanies:
  1. bacterical infections
  2. viral infections
  3. parasitic infestations
  4. allergic conditions
  5. all of the above are correct

 

  1. ______ leave the blood after circulating for only a day or two and become the large tissue phagocytes known as macrophages.
  1. Neutrophils
  2. Eosinophils
  3. basophils
  4. lymphocytes
  5. monocytes

  1. Which fo the following types fo blood cellular elemnts lack nucli?
  1. platelets
  2. erythrocytes
  3. leukocytes
  4. a and b are correct
  5. all of the above are correct

 

  1. What forms the meshwork of a clot (solid gel)?
  1. red blood cells
  2. fibrin
  3. platelets
  4. thrombin
  5. Hageman factor

 

  1. When small blood vessels are damaged, loss of blood is prevented by:
  1. Platelet aggregation
  2. Vasoconstriciton of these vessels
  3. Formation fo a platelet plug
  4. All of the above is correct
  5. None of the above is correct

 

  1. The extrinic clotting cascade pathway
  1. is set off by factor XII
  2. clots blood in an injured vessel
  3. has more steps than the intrinsic pathway
  4. more than one fo the above is correct
  5. starts when a tissue is tramatized, it releases a protien complex known as tissue thromplastin

 

  1. Tissue thromboplastin:
  1. is released from traumatized tissue and triggers the extrinsic clotting pathway
  2. converts fibringen to fibrin
  3. forms the meshwork fo the clot
  4. activates factor XII (hageman factor)
  5. more than one is correct

 

  1. Clots are slowly dissolved by:
  1. tissue thromboplastin
  2. prostacyclin
  3. plasmin
  4. calcium
  5. exposed collagen

 

  1. Hemophilia results from:
  1. a deficiency of platelets
  2. inadequate hemoglobin production
  3. vitamin B12 definciency
  4. a genetic inability to produce one (factor VIII) of the factors in the clotting cascade
  5. excess production of heparin

 

  1. Which one of the following is a chemotactic agent?
  1. interferons
  2. opsonins
  3. pyrogens
  4. hydrogen peroxide
  5. leukotaxine

 

  1. Pluripotent uncommited stem cells are involved in the production of :
  1. erythrocytes
  2. megakaryocytes
  3. lymphpcytes
  4. monocytes and granulocytes
  5. all of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is not a white blood cell?
  1. monocyte
  2. granulocyte
  3. thrombocyte
  4. eosinophil
  5. basophil

 

  1. Which of the following is an agranular leukocyte?
  1. eosinophil
  2. monocyte
  3. thrombocyte
  4. basophil
  5. neutrophil

 

  1. The ion responsible for oxygen transport by hemoglobin is:
  1. cobalt
  2. hydrogen
  3. manganse
  4. iron
  5. phosphorus

 

  1. The amount of blood in an adult male is ___ liters.
  1. 3-4
  2. 4-5
  3. 5-6
  4. 6-7
  5. 7-8

 

  1. Which fo the following substances is not necessary for the production of red blood cells?
  1. iron
  2. copper
  3. riboflavin
  4. vitamin E
  5. folic acid

 

  1. Pernicious anemia occurs as a result fo deficincy in the absorption fo vitamin:
  1. B1
  2. B6
  3. B12
  4. C
  5. E

 

  1. The rarest of the white blood cells that produce histamine and heparin are:
  1. basophils
  2. eosinophils
  3. neutrophils
  4. lymohocytes
  5. moncytes

 

  1. Phsiological leukocytes occurs in response to all but which of the following conditions?
  1. pregnancy
  2. bacterical infections
  3. emotional disturbances and stress
  4. menstration
  5. severe exercise

 

  1. The most abundant and smallest plasma protien is:
  1. albumin
  2. thrombin
  3. globulin
  4. fibrinogen
  5. immunglobin

 

  1. People with which blood type is called "universal" donors?
  1. O
  2. A
  3. B
  4. AB
  5. Rh

 

  1. A leukocyte can migrate across the endothelial lining of a capillary, squeezing between adjacent endothelial cells through a process known as:
  1. hematuria
  2. diapedesis
  3. rouleaux
  4. coagulation
  5. aggregation factors

 

  1. The first white blood cells to arrive at an injury site is called:
  1. lymphocytes
  2. moncytes
  3. neutrrcytes
  4. basophils
  5. mast cells

 

  1. The protiens which attack foreign proteins and pathogens are called:
  1. albumins
  2. immunoglobins
  3. metalloprotiens
  4. fibrin
  5. target cells

 

  1. B cells are responsible for which type fo immunity?
  1. humoral antibodies
  2. specific
  3. acquired
  4. cellular
  5. secondary response

 

  1. Which fo the following is not an example of nonspecific defenses against disease?
  1. physical barriers
  2. phagocytic cells
  3. complement
  4. activation fo T cells
  5. local inflamation

 

  1. Lymphocytes are very sensitive to the presence of :
  1. humoral factors
  2. protien antigen molecules
  3. anitbodies
  4. mesenterics
  5. effects of aging and stress

 

  1. Which immunglobin is the main form or class of antibodies in circulation?
  1. IgG
  2. IgA
  3. IgM
  4. IgE
  5. IgD

 

  1. Which chemical polypetide(s) makes the synthesizing cell and its neighbors resistant to "viral" infection?
  1. tumor necrosis factor
  2. B cell growth factor
  3. Interferons
  4. B cell differentiating factor
  5. Lymphokines

 

  1. Viruses:
  1. are single-celled microrganisms
  2. consist only of nuclei acids enclosed by a protien coat
  3. must invade a host cell in order to carry out metabolism and reproduce or live
  4. a and c are correct
  5. b and c are correct

 

  1. Which fo the following are lymphoid tissues?
  1. lymph nodes clustered in certain regoins
  2. spleen
  3. tonsils
  4. thymus gland
  5. all of the above are correct

 

  1. Which of the following is not a "component" of nonspecific immune respones?
  1. Inflammation
  2. Antibody protection
  3. Interferon
  4. natural killer cells
  5. the complete system

 

  1. Localized vasodilation of blood vessels in an inflamed area is brought about by the release of ____ from ______.
  1. histamine, mast cells
  2. opsonins, B lymphocytes
  3. interleukin 1, mast cells
  4. leukocyte endogenous mediator, phagocytes
  5. prostaglandins, phagocytes

 

  1. Which of the following properties does not apply to neutrophils?
  1. Are produced only in lymph nodes (lymphatic tissues)
  2. Can perform phagocytosis
  3. Can perform diapedesis
  4. Can exhibit amoeboid movement
  5. Are attracked by chemotaxis

 

  1. Neutrophils and monocytes (types of white blood cells) can squeeze through small capillary pores by a process known as:
  1. oponization
  2. chemotaxis
  3. chemotaxis
  4. phagocytosis
  5. agglutination

 

  1. Monocytes:
  1. Are the first phagocytes to exit the blood and arrive at an injured or invaded area.
  2. Swell and mature into mature macrophages after exiting the blood stream.
  3. Act as opsonins.
  4. Both A and B are correct
  5. All of the above are correct

 

  1. Interferons:
  1. forms a membrane-attack complex
  2. causes lysis of invading microbes
  3. nonspecifically defends against most viral invasions
  4. stimulates histamine release from mast cells
  5. is secreted by lymphoid tissues

 

  1. T lymphocytes:
  1. produce thymosin
  2. secrete antibodies
  3. are converted into plasma cells
  4. mature and differentiate within the bone marrow
  5. proliferate and differentiate into activated cytotoxic (killer) , helper and suppressor cells

 

  1. Which type of leukocyte undergoes final maturation and differentiation in the thymus?
  1. Neutrophils
  2. B lymphocytes
  3. T lymphocytes
  4. Macrophages
  5. Basophils

 

  1. Lymphocytes:
  1. are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
  2. are activated by thymosin
  3. mature and differentiate into macrophages
  4. bind the foreign antigen in association with self-antigen
  5. are attcked by AIDS virus

 

  1. A large, complex protein molecule that triggers a specific immune response against itself when it gains entry into the body is known as:
  1. interferon
  2. an antigen
  3. an antibody
  4. complement
  5. an oposnin

 

  1. Which of the following is not a way in which antibodies exert their protective influence against a foreign protein antigen.
  1. Neutralization
  2. Agglutination
  3. Direct destruction of foreign organisms
  4. Activation fo the complement system
  5. Enhancement of phagocytosis

 

  1. Type-0 blood:
  1. does not have any A or B red blood cell surface antigens
  2. contains both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
  3. can be transfused into individuals of any ABO blood type without a transfusion reaction involving this blood system
  4. both A and B are correct
  5. all of the above are correct