LECTURE TEST #2

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 2402

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: HEART, BLOOD, VESSELS, GENERAL

CIRCULATION, FETAL CIRCULATION AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Directions: For each of the following questions or incomplete statements below select the best answer in each case.

PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY!!!

  1. The heart lies in the:

  1. pleural cavity
  2. peritoneal cavity
  3. abdominopelvic cavity
  4. mediastinum
  5. none of the above

  1. The left ventricle pumps blood

  1. to the lungs
  2. to the right ventricle
  3. to the right atrium
  4. to the systemic circuit
  5. all of the above

  1. The atrioventricular valve that is located on the side of the heart that receives the superior vena cava is the:

  1. mitral valve
  2. bicuspid valve
  3. tricuspid valve
  4. pulmonary semilunar valve
  5. aoritc semilunlar valve

  1. The bicuspid or mitral valve is located:

  1. in the opening of the aorta
  2. in the opening of the pulmonary trunk
  3. where the vena cava join the right atrium
  4. between the right atrium and right ventricle
  5. between the left atrium and left ventricle

  1. Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle

  1. has a thicker wall
  2. is round in cross section
  3. produces 6 to 7 times more force when it contracts
  4. develops large pressures when it contracts
  5. all of the above

  • The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated within the heart.
    1. right atrium
    2. left atrium
    3. right ventricle
    4. left ventricle
    5. vena cava
    6. aorta
    7. pulmanary trunk
    8. pulamnary veins

      What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation?

      1. 1,2,7,8,3,4,6,5
      2. 1,7,3,8,,2,46,5
      3. 5,1,3,7,8,2,4,6,
      4. 5,3,1,7,8,4,2,6,
      5. 5,1,3,8,7,2,4,6

    1. The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the

    1. pulmonary arteries
    2. coronary arteries
    3. circumflex arteries
    4. carotid arteries
    5. subclavian arteries

    1. The following are various components of the conducting system of the heart

    1. purkinje cells
    2. AV bundle (His)
    3. AV node
    4. SA node
    5. Bundle branches

      The sequence in which an action potential would move through this system is

      1. 1, 4,3,2,5
      2. 3,2,4,5,1
      3. 3,5,4,2,1
      4. 4,3,2,5,1
      5. 4,2,3,5,1

       

      1. The first heart sound is heard when

      1. the AV valves open
      2. the AV valves close
      3. the semilunar valves close
      4. the atria contract
      5. blood enters the aorta

      1. Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the

      1. p wave
      2. t wave
      3. s wave
      4. QRS complex
      5. PR complex

      1. When a clot forms on the plaque in a coronary vessel obstructing blood flow to the muscle, the condition is referred to as a (n)

      1. angioplasty
      2. myocardial infarction
      3. coronary thrombosis
      4. angina pectoris
      5. pulmonary embolism

      1. Abnormally slow conduction through the ventricles would change the shape of the _____ in an ECG tracing

      1. p wave
      2. t wave
      3. QRS complex
      4. P-R interval
      5. R-T interval

      1. If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked,

      1. the ventricles will beat faster
      2. the ventricles will beat more slowly
      3. the ventricular rate of contraction will not be affected
      4. the stroke volume will increase
      5. tachycardia will occur

      1. If there is a blockage between the AV node and the AV bundle, how will this affect the appearance of the electrocardiogram?

      1. the P-R interval will be smaller
      2. the QRS interval will be longer
      3. there will be more p waves than QRS complexes
      4. there will be more QRS complexes than p waves
      5. the T wave will disapppear

      1. Compared to arteries, veins

      1. are more elastic
      2. have more smooth muscle in their tunica media
      3. have a pleated endothelium
      4. have thinner walls
      5. hold their shape better when cut

      1. The following is a list of the vessels that blood passes through from the heart back to the heart

      1. venues
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. elastic large arteries
      5. medium veins
      6. large veins

      The correct order in which blood passes through these structures from leaving the heart until its return is

      1. 4,2,3,1,5,8
      2. 6,5,1,3,2,4
      3. 5,6,1,3,2,4
      4. 2,6,3,1,5,6
      5. 4,2,3,1,5,6

      1. The blood vessels that play the most important role in the regulation of blood flow to a tissue and blood pressure are the

      1. arteries
      2. arterioles
      3. veins
      4. venules
      5. capillaries

      1. The only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids are the

      1. arteries
      2. arterioles
      3. veins
      4. venules
      5. capillaries

      1. Materials and water can move across capillary walls by

      1. diffusion
      2. active transport
      3. osmosis
      4. bulk transport
      5. all of the above

      1. Blood moves forward through veins

      1. because the channel (s) in the veins is narrower moving from capillary network or bed
      2. with the aid of contractions of skeletal muscles
      3. with the aid of the thoracoabdominal pump
      4. because valves in the veins prevent the backflow of blood
      5. all of the above

      1. The two vertebral arteries going to the brain fuse to form a large artery, the

      1. circle of Willis
      2. common carotid artery
      3. external carotid artery
      4. internal carotid artery
      5. basilar artery

      1. The internal carotids and the basilar artery are interconnected by an anastomosis called the _______ for the brain to receive blood.

      1. common carotid artery
      2. cerebral ring
      3. circle of Willis
      4. external carotid artery
      5. none of the above

      1. The ____ divides the aorta into a (superior) thoracic aorta and an (inferior) abdominal aorta.

      1. pericardium
      2. mediastinum
      3. diaphragm
      4. peritoneum
      5. pleura

      1. Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the

      1. common carotid arteries
      2. common iliac arteries
      3. femoral arteries
      4. tibial arteries
      5. popliteal arteries

      1. The vessel that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms is the

      1. internal jugular vein
      2. external jugular vein
      3. superior vena cava
      4. inferior vena cava
      5. coronary sinus

      1. Nutrients from the digestive tract enter the_____ then into the liver

      1. inferior vena cava
      2. superior vena cava
      3. hepatic portal vein
      4. hepatic vein
      5. azygos vein

      1. Blood pressure is determined by

      1. measuring the size of the pulse
      2. measuring the pressure in the left ventricle
      3. measuring the force exerted by blood in a vessel against air in a closed cuff
      4. measuring the degree of turbulence in a closed vessel
      5. all of the above

      1. Blood pressure increases with

      1. increased cardiac output
      2. increased peripheral resistance
      3. increased force of cardiac contraction
      4. all of the above

      1. Blood flow through the circulatory system is affected by

      1. pressure differences
      2. the viscosity of the blood
      3. the amount of friction in the blood vessels
      4. the length and diameter of the blood vessels
      5. all of the above

      1. As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries

      1. the pressure increases
      2. the resistance increases
      3. the flow increases
      4. the viscosity increases
      5. all of the above

      1. The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the

      1. critical closing pressure
      2. mean arterial pressure
      3. pulse pressure
      4. blood pressure
      5. circulatory pressure

      1. Each of the following factors would increase or elevate cardiac output except one. Identify the exception

      1. increases venous return
      2. decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart
      3. increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart
      4. stimulation of the heart by epinephrine or norepinephrine
      5. parasympathetic stimulation

      1. Anxiety can result in

      1. increased stimulation of the cardioinhibitory center by higher brain centers
      2. increased stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers
      3. decreased heart rate
      4. decreased blood pressure
      5. all of the above

      1. Elderly individuals usually have

      1. elevated hematocrits
      2. stiff inelastic arteries
      3. decreased blood pressure
      4. increased venous return
      5. all of the above

      1. Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include

      1. smoking
      2. lack of exercise
      3. high fat diets
      4. obesity
      5. all of the above

      1. Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance except one. Identify the exception

      1. increased sympathetic stimulation
      2. elevated levels of epinephrine
      3. vasodilation
      4. irregularities in the vessel walls caused by plaques
      5. factors that cause increased hematocrits

      1. Which of the following is faster?

      1. blood flow along the walls of a blood vessel
      2. blood flow in the center of a large vessel

      1. Edema would be likely to form when

      1. the concentration of protein in the blood increases
      2. hemorrhage occurs
      3. the heart is an insufficient pump
      4. blood hydrostatic pressure in a capillary decreases
      5. the blood hydrostatic pressure in a capillary is equal to the blood osmotic pressure

      1. The layer of the heart wall that is composed primarily or cardiac muscle tissue is the

      1. pericardium
      2. endocardium
      3. myocardium
      4. epicardium
      5. paracardium

      1. The greatest blood pressure is experienced in the

      1. right atrium
      2. right ventricle
      3. left atrium
      4. left ventricle
      5. brain

      1. The rapid depolarization of the heart muscle is due to a rapid increase in permeability of the membrane to

      1. calcium
      2. sodium
      3. phosphorus
      4. potassium
      5. chorine

      1. The impulse is passing through the AV node

      1. during the P wave
      2. between the P wave and GRS complex
      3. during the QRS complex
      4. between the QRS complex and T wave
      5. during the T wave

      1. The heart chamber having the greatest work load is

      1. the right ventricle
      2. the left ventricle
      3. the left atrium
      4. the right atrium
      5. the coronary sinus

      1. Which is the normal sequence of conducting network of cardiac excitation?

      1. AV node
      2. SA node
      3. Atria
      4. Purkinje fibers
      5. Bundle of His
      6. Ventricular myocardium

      Answers

      1. 2 to 3 to 1 to 5 to 4 to 6
      2. 3 to 2 to 1 to 4 to 5 to 6
      3. 2 to 3 to 1 to 4 to 5 to 6
      4. 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 6
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. Which of the following ECG waves represents ventricular repolarization?

      1. P wave
      2. QRS wave
      3. T wave
      4. PR segment
      5. Ventricular repolarization occurs simultaneously with atrial depolarization and consequently cannot be recorded.

      1. The electrocardiogram is most useful in determining which component of cardiac output?

      1. stroke volume
      2. heart rate
      3. ejection fraction
      4. end-diastolic volume
      5. murmurs

      1. If stroke volume is 80 ml and the heart rate is 70 beats per minute, the cardiac output is

      1. 150 l/min
      2. 560 ml/min
      3. 5600ml/min
      4. 8700 mil/min
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. According to the Frank-Starling law of the heart states that

      1. the heart completely empties with every beat
      2. the heart empties more completely upon parasympathetic stimulation
      3. within physiological limits, as cardiac muscle is stretched, its force of contraction increases to pump out all the blood returned to it
      4. when venous return decreases, stroke volume increases to compensate
      5. the cardiac output cannot be varied, thereby maintaining circulatory stability

      1. According to the Frank-Starling law of the heart,

      1. the shorter the initial length of the cardiac muscle fibers prior to contraction, the more forceful will be the subsequent contraction, because the fibers are already partially contracted
      2. increasing the venous return increases the endiastolic volume, which leads to and increased stroke volume, so the heart normally pumps out all of the blood returned to it
      3. as cardiac output is reduced, blood pools in the vasculature so that arterial blood pressure increases
      4. the output of the left side of the heart must always exceed that of the right side of the heart, because the right side only pumps blood to the lungs, whereas the left side must pump blood to the rest of the body
      5. the greater the stroke volume, the smaller will be the subsequent end-diastolic volume, because as more blood is squeezed out, the

      1. Which of the following will not increase heart rate

      1. increased paraympathetic nerve activity
      2. increased sympathetic nerve activity
      3. decreased K+ permeability of the SA node
      4. increased epinephrine
      5. increased serious exercise

      1. Blood flow resistance

      1. is a measure of the resistance to blood flow through a vessel caused by friction between the moving fluid and stationary vascular walls
      2. is doubled when the diameter of the vessel is reduced by one-half
      3. increases sixteen-fold when the radius of the vessel is reduced by one-half (1/2)
      4. is when blood is ejected from the heart during ventricular systole, the pressure within arteries rises and the arteries expand
      5. both a and c above are correct

      1. The pulse pressure

      1. is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure
      2. is the average pressure throughout the cardiac cycle
      3. is the maximum pressure exerted in the arteries
      4. is the minimum pressure exerted in the arteries
      5. is the change in pressure that can be felt in an artery due to the snapping shut of the aortic valve

      1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of capillaries

      1. thin walls
      2. short distance between adjacent vessels
      3. distensible walls
      4. slow blood velocity
      5. large total surface area

      1. Through which vessel is the velocity of blood flow the slowest

      1. aorta
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. venules
      5. veins

      1. The principle force that causes movement of fluid from the tissues into the capillaries to help maintain blood volume

      1. the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the veins
      2. the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the arteries
      3. the osmotic pressure created by the plasma (colloid) protein concentration
      4. the pressure of the lymph
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. Which vessels can act as a blood reservoir by adjusting their total capacity to accommodate variation in blood volume?

      1. arteries
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. veins
      5. lymph vessels

      1. Which of the following factors aids venous return to the heart

      1. sympathetic stimulation increases venous pressure
      2. contracting skeletal muscle (s) pump squeezes blood through the veins
      3. the breathing diaphragm muscle pump provides a pressure gradient between the lower veins and the chest veins
      4. venous valves prevent backflow of blood
      5. all of the above are correct

      1. The cardiovascular control center in the brain for regulation of systemic blood pressure is located in the

      1. carotid sinus
      2. spinal cord
      3. hypothalamus
      4. medulla
      5. sinoatrial node

      1. _________ refers to an abnormally high, chronic state of increased arterial blood pressure

      1. shock
      2. congestive heart failure
      3. pulmonary edema
      4. angina pectoris
      5. hypertension

      1. A small vessel connecting the pulmonary trunk with the aorta and bypassing the fetal lungs is the

      1. foramen ovale
      2. ductus venosus
      3. ductus arteriosus
      4. patent ductus
      5. umbilical vein

      1. The lymphatic system

      1. helps maintain normal blood volume
      2. fights infection
      3. eliminates variations in the composition of interstitial fluid
      4. transports lipids from the digestive tract
      5. all of the above

      1. Anatomically, lumph vessels resemble

      1. elastic arteries
      2. muscular arteries
      3. arterioles
      4. medium veins
      5. the aorta

      1. Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the

      1. right lymphatic duct
      2. thoracic duct
      3. cysterna chyli
      4. hepatic portal vein
      5. dural sinus

      1. The lymphatic system differs from the circulatory system in that it

      1. has valves
      2. lacks a pump
      3. has capillaries
      4. contains a substance similar to plasma
      5. contains only red blood cells

      1. The lymphatic system encompasses a variety of structures (tissues ans organs) which are

      1. skeletal and smooth muscles
      2. heart and lungs
      3. liver and glands
      4. kidneys and blood vessels
      5. nodes, spleen, tonsils, thymus and Peyer’s glands, patches in intestinal lining (wall)

       

       

       

       

      SAN ANTONIO COLLEGE

      LECTURE TEST # 2

      HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2402

      CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, GENERAL CIRCULATION, FETAL CIRCULATION PLUS LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

      1. British physiologist, William Harvey, explained the fundamental nature of the human circulatory system which forms a continuos circle in the

      1. 14th century
      2. 15th century
      3. 16th century
      4. 17th century
      5. 18th century

      1. The tricuspid valve is between the

      1. left atrium and left ventricle
      2. left ventricle and aorta
      3. right atrium and right ventricle
      4. right ventricle and pulmonary arteries
      5. e. both B and D, but not A or C

      1. The semilunar valve is between the

      1. left atrium and left ventricle
      2. left ventricle and aorta
      3. right atrium and right ventricle
      4. right ventricle and pulmonary arteries
      5. both B and D, but not A or C

      1. The mitral valve is between the

      1. left atrium and left ventricle
      2. left ventricle and aorta
      3. right atrium and right ventricle
      4. right ventricle and pulmonary arteries
      5. both B and D, but not A or C

      1. The layer of the heart wall that is composed primarily of cardiac muscle tissue is the

      1. pericardium
      2. endocardium
      3. myocardium
      4. epicardium
      5. paracardium

      1. The rapid depolarization of the heart muscle is due to a rapid increase in permeability of the membrane to

      1. calcium
      2. sodium
      3. phosphorus
      4. potassium
      5. chlorine

      1. In an electrocardiogram the ____ produces a weak signal that is lost

      1. depolarization of atria
      2. repolarization of atria
      3. depolarization of ventricles
      4. repolarization of ventricles
      5. both B and D, but not A or C

      1. The P wave of an electrocradiogram results from the electric signal produced by

      1. the isoelectric line
      2. depolarization of atria
      3. repolarization of atria
      4. depolarization of ventricles
      5. repolarization of the ventricles

      1. The greatest blood pressure is experienced in the

      1. right atrium
      2. right ventricle
      3. left atrium
      4. left ventricle
      5. brain

      1. Adjacent cardiac muscle cells are joined together end-to-end in the ventricles by

      1. intercalated discs
      2. sarcomeres.iogram
      3. purkinje fibers
      4. sinoatrial nodes
      5. atrioventricular nodes

      1. Indicate which is the proper sequence of blood flow through the circulatory system

      1. right atrium
      2. left atrium
      3. right ventricle
      4. left ventricle
      5. pulmonary artery
      6. pulmonary vein
      7. lungs
      8. systemic tissues
      9. aorta
      10. venae cavae

      ANSWERS

      1. 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 6 to 7 to 8 to 9 to 10
      2. 10 to 2 to 4 to 5 to 7 to 6 to 1 to 3 to 9 to 8
      3. 10 to 1 to 3 to 5 to 7 to 6 to 2 to 4 to 9 to 8
      4. 10 to 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 7 to 6 to 9 to 8
      5. None of the above are correct

      1. The heart chamber having the greatest work load is

      1. the right ventricle
      2. the left ventricle
      3. the left atrium
      4. the right atrium
      5. the coronary sinus

      1. The right half to the heart pumps blood through the _____ circulation and the left half pumps blood through the ______ circulation

      1. systolic, diastolic
      2. diastolic, systolic
      3. systemic, pulmonary
      4. pulmonary, systemic

      1. The peacemaker of the heart is normally the

      1. SA node
      2. AV node
      3. Bundle of His
      4. Purkinje system
      5. Ventricular myocardium

      1. On a normal ECG, a wave for repolarization of the atria is not recorded. Why?

      1. The leads are not placed in a position to pick it up.
      2. No repolarization of the atria occurs normally.
      3. It occurs simultaneously with ventricular depolarization and is masked by the QRS complex.
      4. It does not travel through body fluids.
      5. It is too small to be picked up by external recording electrodes.

      1. The QRS complex represents

      1. depolarization of the atria
      2. depolarization of the ventricles
      3. the AV nodal delay
      4. repolarization of the ventricles
      5. the time during which the heart is contracting

      1. The impulse is passing through the AV node

      1. during the P wave
      2. between the P wave
      3. during the QRS complex
      4. between the QRS complex and T wave
      5. during the T wave

      1. Which of the following ECG waves represents ventricular repolarization?

      1. P wave
      2. QRS complex
      3. T wave
      4. PR segment
      5. Ventricular repolarization occurs simultaneously with atrial depolarization and consequently cannot be recorded.

      1. Which is the normal sequence of the spread of cardiac excitation?

      1. AV node
      2. SA node
      3. Atria
      4. Purkinje fibers
      5. Bundle of His
      6. Ventricular myocardium

      ANSWERS

      1. 2 to 3 to 1 to 5 to 4 to 6
      2. 3 to 2 to 1 to 4 to 5 to 6
      3. 2 to 3 to 1 to 4 to 5 to 6
      4. 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 6
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. The electrocardiogram is most useful in determining which component of cardiac output?

      1. stroke volume
      2. heart rate
      3. ejection fraction
      4. end-diastolic volume
      5. murmurs

      1. The end-systolic volume

      1. is the volume of blood in the ventricle when ejection is complete
      2. is the volume of blood in the ventricle when filling is complete
      3. is always equal to the stroke volume
      4. both a and c above are correct
      5. both b and c above are correct

      1. If stroke volume is 80 ml and the heart rate is 70 beats per minute, the cardiac output is

      1. 150 1/min the
      2. 560 ml/min
      3. 5600 ml/min
      4. 8700 ml/min
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. According to the Frank-Sartling law of the heart,

      1. the shorter the initial length of the cardiac muscle fibers prior to contraction, the more forceful will be the subsequent contraction, because the fibers are already partially contracted
      2. increasing the venous return increases the end-diastolic volume, which leads to an increased stroke volume, so the heart normally pumps out all of the blood returned to it
      3. as cardiac output is reduced, blood pools in the vasculature so that arterial blood pressure increases
      4. the output of the left side of the heart must always exceed that of the right side of the heart, because the right side only pumps blood to the lungs, whereas the left side must pump blood to the rest of the body
      5. the greater the stroke volume, the smaller will be the subsequent end-diastolic volume, because as more blood is queezed out, the

      1. According to the Frank-Starling law of the heart states that,

      1. the heart completely empties with every beat
      2. the heart empties more completely upon parasympathetic stimulation
      3. within physiological limits, as cardiac muscle is stretched, its force of contraction increases to pump out stretched, its force of concentration increases to pump out all the blood returned to it
      4. when venous return decreases, stroke volume increases to compensate
      5. the cardiac output cannot be varied, thereby maintaining circulatory stability

      1. parasympathetic innervation to the heart

      1. is the vagus nerve
      2. decreases the rate at which spontaneous action potentials are initiated in the SA node
      3. decreases the strength of ventricular contraction
      4. both a and b above are correct
      5. all of the above are correct

      1. Sympathetic stimulation of the heart

      1. increases the heart-rate
      2. cardioacceleratory center in the medulla
      3. increases rate of conduction to the effector organ
      4. increases the contractile strength of the heart muscle
      5. all of the above are correct

      1. Which of the following will not increase heart-rate

      1. increased parasympathetic nerve activity
      2. increased sympathetic nerve activity
      3. decrease K permeability of the SA node
      4. increased epinephrine
      5. increased serious exercise

      1. Blood flow resistance

      1. is a measure of the resistance to blood flow through a vessel caused by friction between the moving fluid and stationary vascular walls
      2. is doubled when the diameter of the vessel is reduced by one-half
      3. increases sixteen-fold when the radius of the vessel is reduced by one-half (1/2)
      4. is when blood is ejected from the heart during ventricular systole, the pressure within arteries rises and the arteries expand
      5. both a and c above are correct

      1. Blood flow resistance increases when

      1. radius decreases
      2. length decreases
      3. viscosity decreases
      4. hematocrit decreases
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. The major determinant influencing resistance to blood flow is

      1. the viscosity of the blood
      2. the radius or diameter of the vessel through which the blood is flowing
      3. the blood vessel length
      4. a higher hematocrit of the blood than normal
      5. all of the above are correct

      1. The microcirculation is composed of

      1. arteries
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. venules

      ANSWERS

      1. 1,2, and 3 are correct
      2. 2,3, and 4 are correct
      3. 1,3, and 4 are correct
      4. 1,2, and 4 are correct
      5. none of the above answers are correct

      1. What force continues to drive blood flew through the cardiovascular circulation during ventricular diastole

      1. ventricular contraction forces blood into the vasculature during ventricular diastole
      2. the elastic recoil of the stretched arterial walls provides the force to continue blood flow in the remaining vacular system during ventricular diastole
      3. sympathetic stimulation produces arterial vasoconstricion, which drives the blood forward into the arterioles during ventricular diastole
      4. skeletal muscle contraction squeezes the blood forward from the arteries during ventricular diastole
      5. respiratory movements produce pressure changes in the chest, which establishes a pressure gradient that drives blood forward from the arteries into the microcirculation

      1. The pulse pressure

      1. is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure
      2. is the average pressure throughout the cardiac arteries
      3. is the maximum pressure exerted in the arteries
      4. is the minimum pressure exerted in the arteries
      5. is the change in pressure that can be felt in an artery due to the snapping shut of the aortic valve

      1. Capillaries are noted for their absence of _____

      1. thoroughfare channels directly connect arterioles and venules
      2. smooth muscle cells
      3. red blood cells
      4. sites at which the exchange of materials takes place
      5. branching bed, network

      1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of capillaries

      1. thin walls
      2. short distance between adjacent vessels
      3. distensible walls
      4. slow blood velocity
      5. large total surface area

      1. The largest total cross-sectional area is found in the

      1. aorta
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. venules
      5. veins

      1. Through which vessel is the velocity of blood flow the slowest

      1. aorta
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. venules
      5. veins

      1. As the total cross sectional area of the vascular tree_____ the velocity of blood flow

      1. increases, decreases
      2. increases, increases
      3. decreases, decreases
      4. increases, remains constant
      5. decreases, remains constant

      1. The site of exchange of nutrients and metabolic end products is

      1. the arteries
      2. the arterioles
      3. the capillaries
      4. the veins
      5. the heart

      1. What is the primary method by which materials such as O2, CO2 and nutrients are exchanged between the blood and surrounding tissues

      1. passive diffusion of substances across the capillary wall down their concentration gradients
      2. active transport of materials across the capillary wall down their concentration gradients
      3. osmotic pressure drawing waste and solutes out of the capillary, thereby bringing these dissolved nutrients into contact with the tissue cells
      4. the combined processes of ultrafiltration and readsorption
      5. bulk flow

      1. The principle force that causes movement of fluid from the tissues into the capillaries to help maintain blood volume

      1. the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the veins
      2. the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the arteries
      3. the osmotic pressure created by the plasma (colloid) protein concentration
      4. the pressure of the lymph
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

      1. defense against disease
      2. return of fluid to the circulatory system
      3. transport of fat molecules absorbed in the intestine
      4. transport of hormones
      5. return of plasma proteins to the circulatory system

      1. The vascular veins

      1. act as low-resistance passageways for blood flow from the tissues to the heart
      2. can serve as a blood reservoir by adjusting their total capacity to accommodate variations in blood volume
      3. contain one-way valves that prevent the backflow of blood
      4. generally have large lumens and thin walls
      5. all of the above are correct

      1. Which vessels can act as a blood reservoir by adjusting their total capacity to accommodate variations in blood volume?

      1. arteries
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. veins
      5. lymph vessels

      1. The venous valves

      1. actively contract to force blood uphill against gravity
      2. passively close to prevent the backflow of blood in the veins due to gravitational pull or attraction
      3. are positioned at the entrances to the atria
      4. both b and c above are correct
      5. all of the above are correct

      1. The walls of the veins contain smooth muscle innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Sympathetic stimulation ________ venous pressure and drives _______ blood into the heart.

      1. increases, more
      2. increases, less
      3. decreases, more
      4. decreases, less
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. Which of the following factors aids venous return to the heart

      1. sympathetic stimulation increases venous pressure
      2. contracting skeletal muscle (s) pump squeezes blood through the veins
      3. the breathing diaphragm muscle pump provides a pressure gradient between the lower veins and the chest veins
      4. venous valves prevent backflow of blood
      5. all of the above are correct

      1. Which vessels have the greatest blood capacitance

      1. arteries
      2. arterioles
      3. capillaries
      4. veins
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. The two (2) determinants of mean arterial pressure are _____ and ______

      1. stroke volume, compliance of vessel walls
      2. heart rate, stroke volume
      3. heart rate, end-diastolic volume
      4. cardiac output, total peripheral resistance
      5. none of the above are correct

      1. When the blood pressure becomes elevated above normal,

      1. the carotid-sinus and aortic-arch baroreceptors increase the rate of firing in the afferent nerves
      2. the cardiovascular control center decreases symphatetic and increases parasympathetic activity to the heart and blood vessels
      3. arteriolar vasodilation occurs as a compensatory response
      4. the activity of the parasympathetic nerves to the heart increases.
      5. All of the above are correct

      1. Which of the following does not occur to compensate for a fall in blood pressure below normal?

      1. cardiac output is increased
      2. total peripheral resistance of arterioles is decreased
      3. heart rate is increased
      4. venous vasoconstriction occurs
      5. stroke volume is increased

      1. The cardiovascular control center in the brain for regulation of systemic blood pressure is located in the

      1. carotid sinus
      2. spinal cord
      3. hypothalamus
      4. medulla
      5. sinoatrial node

      1. Regulation of arterial pressure is mediated by reflex mechanisms. One important pressure receptor, a ______ is located in the ______

      1. chemoreceptor, carotid sinus
      2. exteroceptor, crotid sinus
      3. baroreceptor, carotid sinus
      4. chemoreceptor, skeletal muscles
      5. baroreceptor, skeletal muscles

      1. ________ refers to and abnormally high, chronic state of increased arterial blood pressure

      1. shock
      2. congestive heart failure
      3. pulmonary edema
      4. angina pectoris
      5. hypertension

      1. Which of the following does not contribute to the venous return of blood to the heart?

      1. the large diameter of veins
      2. the massaging action of neighboring skeletal muscles
      3. intrathoracic pressure during respiration
      4. the elasticity of veins
      5. one-way valves

      1. A small vessel connecting the pulmonary trunk with the aorta an bypassing the fetal lungs is the

      1. foramen ovale
      2. ductus venosus
      3. ductus arteriosus
      4. patent ductus
      5. umbilical vein

      1. Carotid and aortic bodies are sensitive to concentrations of all but which of the following?

      1. arterial blood levels of oxygen
      2. venous blood levels of oxygen O2
      3. arterial blood levels of carbon dioxide CO2
      4. arterial blood levels of hydrogen ions (H+)
      5. none of the above

      1. Which of the following is not used for determining pressure pulse to determine the rate of the hearbeat of each patient?

      1. temporal artery
      2. facial artery
      3. brachial artery
      4. jugular artery
      5. radial artery

      1. The lymphatic system differs from the circulatory system in that it

      1. has valves
      2. lacks a pump
      3. has capillaries
      4. contains a substance similar to plasma
      5. contains only red blood cells