San Antonio College

Lecture Test #3

Human Anatomy and Physiology 2402

The Respiratory System; The Digestive System, and Nutrition;
Energy Metabolism and Regulation of Body Temperature

Directions: For each of the following questions or incomplete statements below, select the best of the most appropriate answer in each case.

  1. The trachea, primary bronchi, respiratory bronchioles, and the lining of pseudotratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    1. warm the air
    2. filter the air to remove impurities
    3. distribute air to exchange surfaces
    4. humidity the air
    5. all of the above
  2. Which of the following conditions does NOT occur on a large inspiration
    1. the inspiratory muscles contract
    2. the size of the thoracic cavity increases
    3. the pleural pressure becomes more positive
    4. the transpulmonic pressure becomes more positive
    5. the lung becomes more inflated
  3. The ________ lung has ________ lobes and contains the cardiac notch.
    1. left, 2
    2. left, 3
    3. right, 2
    4. right, 3
  4. Which has the greatest volume
    1. expiratory reserve volume
    2. vital capacity
    3. inspiratory reserve volume
    4. tidal volume
    5. dead air space volume
  5. Gas exchange occurs across the membraneous walls of
    1. all of the following
    2. terminal bronchioles
    3. alveoli
    4. tertiary bronchi
    5. respiratory bronchioles
  6. The carbon dioxide (CO2) transport route that is most (approximately 70%) used is
    1. carbaminohemoglobin
    2. bicarbonate
    3. dissolved in solution
    4. platelet transport
    5. none of the above
  7. Inspiration is due to enlargement of the thoracic cavity by contraction of the
    1. diaphragm
    2. internal intercostals
    3. external intercostals
    4. abdominal muscles
    5. a & c
  8. Expiration is usually __________ relying on __________.
    1. active, contraction of abdominal muscles
    2. active, relaxation of diaphragm and intercostals
    3. passive, the natural recoil tendency of elastic fibers of the lungs
    4. passive, contraction of the diaphragm and intercostals
  9. Carbonic anhydrase located in the erythrocytes in a (n)
    1. carrier of carbon dioxide in the blood
    2. storage site for carbon dioxide
    3. catalytic enzyme that accelerates the combination of carbon dioxide and water in the course of respiration
    4. enzyme that splits the bicarbonate ion
    5. enzyme that splits carbonic acid into hydrogen and bicarbonate ion
  10. Bends is a sick condition produced by the accumulation of _________ under pressure in the body fluids and tissues
    1. hydrogen
    2. oxygen
    3. carbon dioxide
    4. water vapor
    5. nitrogen
  11. The amount of air can be inspired over and above the tidal volume is the ________ and averages about ________ milliliters.
    1. vital capacity, 4500
    2. inspiratory reserve volume, 3000
    3. inspiratory capacity, 3500
    4. vital capacity, 3000
    5. inspiratory capacity, 4500
  12. A person with a vital capacity of 4000 ml, a tidal volume of 400 ml, an anatomic dead space of 100 ml, and a breathing rate of 10 breathes per minute would have an alveolar ventilation of ______ml/min.
    1. 40,000
    2. 36,000
    3. 4,000
    4. 3,000
    5. 1,000
  13. In a gas with a total pressure of 600 mm Hg that contains 10% oxygen, 20% carbon dioxide, and 70% nitrogen, the partial pressure of oxygen would be ______mm Hg. The direction of diffusion of a gas across the respiratory membrane is determinated by
    1. its solubility
    2. its pressure gradient
    3. the presence or absence of carrier molecules
    4. how hard you inhale or exhale
    5. the blood pressure
  14. Within an alveolus, pressure gradients favor diffusion of carbon dioxide across the respiratory membrane ________ and the diffusion of oxygen _________.
    1. into the blood, into the alveolus
    2. into the blood , also into the blood
    3. into the alveolus, into the blood
    4. into the alveolus, also into the alveolus
  15. The majority of oxigen (02) is transported within the blood
    1. bound to plasma proteins
    2. in the form of H2O
    3. in the form of HCO3
    4. bound to hemoglobin
    5. dissolved in plasma
  16. How is carbon dioxide (CO2) transported in the blood?
    1. in all of the following ways
    2. dissolved in plasma
    3. as bicarbonate ions in plasma
    4. bound to hemoglobin
  17. The automatic "rhythmycity" center of breathing is regulated by nerve fibers that descend the lateral and ventral white matter of the spinal cord from the:
    1. midbrain
    2. cerebrum
    3. medulla oblongata
    4. pons
    5. hypothalamus
  18. Which of the following structures serves as a common passage way for both the respiratory and digestive systems
    1. nasal cavity
    2. pharynx
    3. trachea
    4. bronchi
    5. esophagus
  19. The Hering-Breuer reflex is initiated by
    1. chemoreceptors detecting O2
    2. chemoreceptors detecting CO2
    3. stretch receptors
    4. chemoreceptors detecting pH
    5. thermoreceptors
  20. Under resting conditions, the most important stimulus for breathing is
    1. arterial CO2
    2. body temperature
    3. arterial O2
    4. the degree of stretch of the lungs
    5. none of the above
  21. The peripheral chemoreceptors involved in regulation of breathing are located in the
    1. aortic bodies, in the aortic arch
    2. carotid bodies, in the carotid arteries
    3. lungs
    4. heart
    5. a & b
  22. Which of the following decrease the percent saturation of hemoglobin?
    1. all of the following
    2. decreased pH
    3. decreased temperature
    4. increased PO2
    5. increased CO2
  23. The respiratory system is directly involved in the homeostatic regulation ( the rate and depth of breathing) of
    1. carbon dioxide (PO2)
    2. pH
    3. oxygen (PO2)
    4. a & c
    5. a , b, & c
  24. Carbon monoxide (CO) is toxic because it
    1. dissolves in plasma, creating a sharp drop in pH
    2. combines with oxygen, preventing it from binding to hemoglobin
    3. oxidizes hemoglobin, preventing oxygen binding
    4. binds to the same site on hemoglobin as oxygen, only much more strongly
    5. binds to the red blood cell membrane
  25. Which of the following is NOT an accessory digestive organ
    1. salivary glands
    2. exocrine pancreas
    3. stomach
    4. gall bladder
    5. liver
  26. There are _________ deciduous teeth that are _________.
    1. 32, temporary
    2. 20, temporary
    3. 32, permanent
    4. 20, permanent
  27. Each half of the mandible and maxilla in an adult contains 8 teeth. These include _______ incisors, _________ canines, _______ premolars, and ________ molars.
    1. 2, 2, 2, 2,
    2. 1, 2, 3, 2,
    3. 2, 1, 3, 2
    4. 1, 2, 2, 3
    5. 2, 1, 2, 3
  28. The rate at which food passes into the small intestine from the stomach is regulated by the
    1. lower esophageal sphincter
    2. ileocecal sphincter
    3. pyloric sphincter
    4. internal anal sphincter
    5. external sphincter
  29. The common bile duct and pancreatic duct enter the
    1. stomach
    2. duodenum
    3. ileum
    4. large intestine
    5. jejunum
  30. The portion of the colon along the left posterior abdominal wall is the
    1. cecum
    2. sigmoid colon
    3. ascending colon
    4. descending colon
    5. transverse colon
  31. Which of the following is NOT a function of the large intestine?
    1. reabsorption of water
    2. chemical digestion of chyme
    3. absorption of some vitamins and minerals
    4. produce and storage of formed feces
    5. restricts powerful peristaltic activity to only 2 or 3 periods each day
  32. Which of the following is present in pancreatic juice?
    1. all of the following
    2. nucleuses
    3. sodium bicarbonate
    4. lipase
    5. amylase
  33. Hepatocytes are the major functional cell of the
    1. stomach
    2. pancreas
    3. gall bladder
    4. liver
    5. small intestine
  34. The serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity and supporting the G.l. tract is
    1. serosa
    2. greater omentum
    3. mesentery
    4. parietal peritoneum
    5. lesser omentum
  35. The primary site of chemical breakdown of foodstuffs and absorption is the
    1. mouth
    2. small intestine
    3. stomach
    4. esophagus
    5. large intestine
  36. Carbohydrate digestion in adults is accomplished by enzymes produced by all of the following organs except the
    1. pancreas
    2. salivary glands
    3. stomach
    4. small intestine
  37. Protein digestion is accomplished by enzymes produced by all of the following organs except the
    1. stomach
    2. salivary glands
    3. small intestine
    4. pancreas
  38. Mixing of chyme the small intestine is accomplished primarily by
    1. mass movements
    2. deglutition
    3. peristalsis
    4. segmentation
    5. haustral contractions
  39. Which of the following substances are absorbed through the stomach wall
    1. deoxyribonucleic acid
    2. cafferine’s bitter taste
    3. aspirin and glucose and alcohol
    4. aminoacids
    5. fatty acids
  40. The series of reactions beginning with glucose and ending with pyruvic acid is
    1. the krebs cycle
    2. anabolism
    3. the electron transport chain
    4. glycolysis
    5. catabolism
  41. Before energy can be extracted from glucose in glycolysis
    1. all of the following occur
    2. NADH must be formed
    3. energy from ATP must be added
    4. phosphate groups must be attached to glucose
    5. a 6-carbon molecule must be split into two 3-carbon molecules
  42. Glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate is formed by splitting
    1. glucose 6-phosphate
    2. citric acid
    3. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
    4. fructose 1,6-phosphate
    5. a & b
  43. ATP in glycolysis is generated
    1. all of the following are true
    2. without the use of the use of electron transport chain
    3. without the use of oxygen
    4. by substrate-level phosphorylation
    5. from catabolic reactions
  44. Glycolysis uses ________ ATP and generates________ ATP.
    1. 4, 2
    2. 4, 4
    3. 2, 2
    4. 2, 4
  45. The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl Co A
    1. does all of the following
    2. generates ATP
    3. requires NADH
    4. utilizes oxygen (O2)
    5. generates a molecule of CO2
  46. Each "turn" of the Krebs cycle produces _______ ATP, _______ NADH, and _______ FADH2.
    1. 1, 2, 3
    2. 2, 2, 2
    3. 1, 3, 2
    4. 1, 3, 1
    5. 2, 6, 2
  47. Oxygen (O2) is necessary in the cell
    1. as a cofactor in glycolysis
    2. to replace the CO2 given off during oxidation of glucose
    3. to provide energy for ATP production
    4. to serve as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, producing a molecule of water
    5. a & c
  48. The only actual site of ATP generation in mitochondria is
    1. in the matrix
    2. at the ATP synthase complex located in the knobs that cover the inner face of the cristae
    3. at the point where the oxygen accepts electrons
    4. within the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain
    5. throughout the cytoplasm of the cell
  49. Oxidate phosphorylation produces _______ of the _______ ATP’s generated by the complete oxidation of glucose molecule
    1. 30, 38
    2. 10, 30
    3. 34, 38
    4. 8, 38
    5. 10, 34
  50. Anaerobic glycolysis generally can gain a net yield from each glucose molecule
    1. 38 ATP,s
    2. 36 ATP’s
    3. 34 ATP’s
    4. 4 ATP’s
    5. 2 ATP’s
  51. When overworked muscular activity exceeds the rate at which oxygen can be provided, a common end product that accumulates in the skeletal muscles is
    1. glucose
    2. glycogen
    3. lactic acid
    4. pyruvic acid
    5. fat
  52. The first step in the removal of lactic acid accumulation in a true physiological fatigue skeletal muscle involves its transport to the liver where most of it is
    1. excreted as waste
    2. converted back into pyruvic acid and/or glucose
    3. sent directly to the Krebs cycle
    4. converted immediately to CO2 and H2O
    5. stores of glycogen
  53. Passage of a pair of electrons from each NADH molecule formed in glycolysis along the electron transport chain that generate _______ ATP.
    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4
    5. 5
  54. The proton-motive force is
    1. generated by the Krebs cycle
    2. generated by movement of protons into the mitochondrial matrix
    3. responsible for oxidative phosphorylation
    4. due to reduction of NAD+
  55. The process by which lactate (lactic acid) is produced from glucose due to overworked skeletal muscle cells is
    1. aerobic respiration
    2. electron transport
    3. fermentation
    4. anaerobic respiration
    5. c & d
  56. The term electron shuttle or bucket brigade is used to describe:
    1. molecules like NADH and FAD
    2. molecules that carry electrons across the inner mitochondrial membrane
    3. molecules of the electron transport chain
    4. molecules involved in glycolysis
    5. molecules involved in the Krebs cycle
  57. Fermentation process extracts ________ of the energy available in a glucose molecule whereas aerobic ATP production has an efficiency of _______.
    1. 40%, 60%
    2. 60%, 100%
    3. 2%, 100%
    4. 2%, 40%
    5. 40%, 100%
  58. Lipid anabolism includes
    1. all of the following
    2. gluconeogenesis from glycerol
    3. cholesterol syntesis
    4. production or phospholipids by the liver
  59. Which or the following molecules can be used to generate ATP, either directly or indirectly
    1. all of the following
    2. glycerol (part of neutral fat)
    3. glucose (carbohydrate)
    4. fatty acids (part of triglyceride)
    5. amino acids (protein)
  60. Which of the following activities predominate during the absorptive state?
    1. all of the following
    2. gluconeogenesis
    3. glycogenolysis
    4. beta oxidation
    5. glyconesis
  61. The only hormone capable of lowering blood glucose is
    1. insulin
    2. glucogan
    3. somatostatin
    4. epinephrine
    5. cortisol
  62. Which of the following vitamins can not be stored in the body?
    1. iron
    2. potassium
    3. chloride
    4. calcium
    5. sodium
  63. The most important hormone (s) regulating the metabolic shifts between absorptive and post-absorptive states under normal circumstances is (are)
    1. glucagon
    2. cortisol
    3. epinephrine
    4. insulin
    5. a & d
  64. Amino acids can be used
    1. in all of the following ways
    2. in gluconeogenesis
    3. in enzyme synthesis
    4. to produce fatty acids
    5. as a source of nitrogen for DNA and RNA

    MATCHING

    Carbohydrate pathways of metabolism in cellular respiration:

    ____ 65. Generates majority of most cell’s ATP

    ____ 66. Forms pyruvic acid

    ____ 67. Located in inner mitochondrial membrane

    ____ 68. Utilizes acetyl-CoA

    ____ 69. Occurs in cytoplasm

    ____ 70. Occurs in mitochondrial matrix

ANSWERS

  1. Glycolysis
  2. Krebs cycle
  3. Electron transport chain
  4. None of the above
  1. The enzymes for glycolysis are located in the _______ of the cell.
    1. cytoplasm
    2. lysosomes
    3. mitochondria
    4. nucleus
    5. ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
  2. The gain in electrons by a molecule is called
    1. electrification
    2. synthesis
    3. ionization
    4. reduction
    5. oxidation
  3. The function of the coenzyme nicotinamide is called dinucleotide (NAD) in the metabolism of glucose is to
    1. convert dihydroxyacetone phosphate into 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde
    2. temporarily hold two electrons and a proton
    3. add an inorganic phosphate to 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde
    4. cleave an organic phosphate from ATP and add it to glucose and glucose-6-phosphate
    5. remove phosphates from phosphorylated 3-carbon fragments of glucose and carry them to ADP to synthesis ATP
  4. The science of _______ investigates the types and amounts of food required for good health.
    1. physiology
    2. metabolism
    3. anatomy
    4. nutrition
    5. anabolism