BIOLOGY 2420 MICROBIOLOGY & PATHOLOGY

EXAM #1

Multiple choice: Read each question or statement carefully and choose the answer that best fits.

  1. The first person to observe cells in living organisms was:
  1. Hooke
  2. Leeuwenhoek
  3. Spallanzani
  4. Redi
  1. All of the following individuals tried to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation. Only one was successful. Which one?
  1. Redi
  2. Spallanzani
  3. Virchow
  4. Pastuer
  1. What does the theory of biogenesis state?
  1. Life evolved from bacteria
  2. Life originated from protozoa
  3. Living organisms come from living ancestors
  4. Microbes are produced by soil particles
  1. Organic acids are commonly used as food preservatives to prevent growth of unwanted microbes in packaged food products. Which of the following compounds is an example fo an organic acid having a terminal carboxyl group.

H H H H H H

  1. H-C-C-OH b. ) H-C-O-C-H c.) H-C-C-S-H

H H H H H H

  1. One of these individuals developed the first chemotherapeutic agent to treat bacterial infections. Which one?
  1. Robert Koch
  2. Joseph Lister
  3. Louis Pasteur
  4. Paul Ehrlich
  5. Lazzaro Spallanzani
  1. Viruses are placed into the kingdom Prokaryotes because:
  1. they are parasitic
  2. they only have RNA
  3. they are photosynthetic
  4. they do not have a nucleus
  1. What did Alexander Fleming discover?
  1. the antibodic penicillin
  2. that Pasteur was really an extreterrestrial
  3. a synthetic drug called salvarsan
  4. protozons
  1. Microbiology is the study fo the following:
  1. bacteria only
  2. bacteria and viruses
  3. bacteria, fungus, and viruses
  4. any organisim which has a microscopic stage of life
  1. The first microorganisms which were abserved an dreported by Leewenhoek were nost likely the following:
  1. larger viruses
  2. protozoans
  3. bacteria
  4. flies
  1. Which fo the following individuals perfected the technique fo rimmunization during the "Golden Age of Microbiology"?
  1. Louis Pasteur
  2. Robert Koch
  3. Joseph Lister
  4. Edward Jenner
  5. Paul Ehrlich
  1. Which of the following kingdoms contain eukaryotic microorganisms?
  1. protista
  2. fungi
  3. prokaryotes
  4. all of the above
  5. all except c
  1. A microorganism is any organism that:
  1. causes disease
  2. reproduces spontaneously
  3. has a nucleous
  4. can't be seen without a microscope
  5. cab survive without O2
  1. The elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen may combine in a 2:1 o/h ratio to form a class fo compounds called the:
  1. hydrocarbons
  2. carbohydrates
  3. lipids
  4. polymers
  1. For the structure below: Identify which class of compounds it belongs to and name it's functional group.

H H O H

H- C- C- C- C- O- C- H

H H H

    1. alcohol/hydroxy group
    2. aldehyde/carboxyl group
    3. organic acid/carboxyl group
    4. ketone/carboxyl group
    5. none of the above
  1. The following molecule is found in cell membranes and has highly polar and nonpolar regions:
  1. monosaccharides
  2. lipids
  3. phospholipids
  4. dipeptide
  5. phospopeptide
  1. What will happen fi the compound HCL is placed into an aqueous (Water) solution?
  1. explode
  2. dissociation of HCl
  3. production of HOH+ ions
  4. production of OH- ions
  5. b &c only
  1. A base may be defined as follows:
  1. any substance with a pH lower than 7
  2. dissociates into Cl- ions in H2O
  3. has a greater number of OH- ions than H+ ions
  4. may be called a proton donor
  5. all of the above
  1. What can be said fo a solution "A" with a pH =2, if we compare it with a solution "B" of pH = 3?
  1. solution "A" si more basic than solution "B"
  2. solution "A" is 10 times more acidic than "B"
  3. solution "A" si 100 times more acidic than "B"
  4. sloution "A" is 3 timesmore acidic and "B"
  1. The valence shell electrons fo atoms are responsible for which fo the following?
  1. atomic weight
  2. chemical reactivity
  3. atomic mass
  4. all of the above
  5. a and c only
  1. What is the difference between a covalen bond and an ionic bond?
  1. covalent bonds only form between carbon atoms
  2. Ionic bonds are due to charge differences while covalent bonds are due to shared electrons
  3. Ionic bonds are stronger than covalent bonds
  4. There is no difference
  5. Is this a trick question
  1. For the chemical reaction below: describe the reaction in terms of energy and produces:

CD-----------> C+D

  1. Endergonic/synthesis
  2. Exergonic/substitution
  3. Exergonic/decomposition
  4. Endergonic /decomposition
  1. Nucleotides are subunits which make up the following macromolecule:
  1. DNA
  2. Protein
  3. Peptidoglycan
  4. Phospholipid
  5. None of the above
  1. Which of the following are characteristics of enzymes?
  1. They lower energy of activation for chemical reactions
  2. Are biological catalysts
  3. Used up during reactions
  4. Act upon a chemical substance called a substrate
  5. All of the above are characteristics of enzymes
  1. What are some characteristics, which make water an important compound in biological systems.
  1. good solvent capability
  2. protection from temperature fluctuation
  3. water is a good solvent for triglycerides
  4. a and b only
  5. none of the above
  1. Which of the following is not a component of Grama (+) bacterial cell walls?
  1. N-Acetylgluseamine
  2. N-Acetylmuramic acid
  3. Lipoproteins
  4. Techoic acids
  1. Which of the following is a true function of flagella in bacteria:
  1. facilitated diffusion
  2. motility
  3. attachment to surfaces
  4. nutrient uptake
  5. all of the above are functions of flagella
  1. What function(s) does the glycocalyx serve in bacteria?
  1. attachment to surfaces
  2. nutrient supply
  3. prevents desiccation
  4. prevents destruction by phagocytes
  5. all of the above
  1. Why would gram(+) bacteria be more susceptible to the antibiotic penicillin than the gram (-) bacteria?
  1. because gram (+) bacteria have no peptidoglycan
  2. because gram (-) bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan laver
  3. Gram (+) bacteria lack an outer membrane as a part of their cell wall.
  4. Gram (-) bacteria have great immune systems

Questions 29-32 match each flagellar arragement with the correct term for each example: Choices

    1. monotrichous
    2. lophotrichous
    3. amphitrichous
    4. peritrichous

29.

30.

31.

32.

  1. Which of the following pair of terms/definitions are mismatched?
  1. Lipid inclusions/PHB
  2. Polysaccharride granules/glycogen storage
  3. Ribosome/protein synthesis
  4. Endospore/lipid storage
  1. Robert Koch isolated the causative agent anthrax as being the bacterium Bacillus antrhracis. What is the shape of this bacterial species?
  1. A spherical cell
  2. Comma shaped cell
  3. Rod shaped cell
  4. Spiral shaped cell
  1. The DNA in bacterial cells is found in this area of the cell:
  1. nucleus
  2. ribosome
  3. nuclear area
  4. volutin
  1. What is the definition of a plasmid?
  1. extracellular piece of DNA
  2. extrachropmosomal piece of DNA
  3. a circular RNA molecule
  4. none of the above
  1. One of the functions of the cell membrane is to allow only certain substances to get in or out of the cell. What is the term which describes this function?
  1. osmosis
  2. absorption
  3. selective permeability
  4. ionotaxis
  1. A cell cytoplasm is composed primarily of the following substances:
  1. Water
  2. Protein
  3. Ribosomes
  4. DNA
  1. Sporogenesis is defined as:
  1. spore production
  2. spore germination
  3. production of cysts
  4. all of the above
  1. What would cause a bacterial cell to sporulate?
  1. Harsh environmental conditions
  2. Lack of nutrients
  3. Temperatures extremes
  4. Lack of moisture
  5. All of the above
  1. Which of these is the reverse of sporogenesis?
  1. sporulation
  2. endospore
  3. germination
  4. deregulation
  1. Many bacteria produce attachment structures called:
  1. conidia
  2. pili
  3. inclusion bodies
  4. cillia
  1. the best definition of chemotaxis is :
  1. motion away from stimulus
  2. motion toward stimulus
  3. motion stimulated by chemicals
  4. motion stimulated by light
  1. The difference in external appearance between spirochetes and true spirilla is in the:
  1. flexibility
  2. mode of nutrition
  3. mode of endospore formation
  4. color of photosynthetic pigments
  1. What is the main difference between a capsule and a slime laver?
  1. capsule are polysaccharides
  2. slime is loosely attached to bacterium
  3. slime is not a polysaccharide
  4. a capsule is not called a glycocalyx

Questions 46-50. Match each bacterial shape with the term which describes it. Choices

  1. diplococcus
  2. staphylococcus
  3. streptococcus
  4. spirilla
  5. streptobacillus

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

Bonus!!!! worth 1 pt each.

51. Name the term used to describe a modified flagella in the spirochetes:

  1. whip
  2. cilia
  3. axial filament
  4. mycelium

52. What does the term pleormophic mean in regards to bacteria?

  1. star shape
  2. cube shape
  3. many shapes
  4. ship shape