Bio2402: Anatomy & Physiology II - EXAM 3

(11 pages Total)

CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER.

  1. The third stage of respiration is
  1. the exchange of gases in alveoli
  2. the exchange of gases between the blood and alveoli
  3. the exchange of gases between the blood and tissues
  4. the transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen I the blood
  5. the exchange of gases between the blood and lymph
  1. The first region of the pharynx which a molecule of oxygen will enter is the
  1. oropharynx
  2. larynqopharynx
  3. nasopharynx
  4. tonsilopharynx
  5. lingualpharynx
  1. The lateral walls of the nasal cavity are composed of the
  1. cribiform plates
  2. middle septum
  3. nasal conchae
  4. internal nares
  5. more than one of the above
  1. The larynx is composed of _____ cartiages.
  1. 2
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 9
  5. 14
  1. Increasing the tension of the vocal cords will result in
  1. hoarseness
  2. decreasing pitch
  3. increasing pitch
  4. no change in pitch
  5. none of the above
  1. The cartage found in the brachial tubes
  1. increases the efficiency of air movement
  2. increases the efficiency of gas exchange
  3. prevents collapse of the tubes
  4. prevents collapse of the alveoli
  5. none of the above
  1. The palatine tonsils are found in the
  1. laryngopharynx
  2. oropharynx
  3. nasopharynx
  4. soft palate
  5. uvula
  1. The respiratory bronchioles are derived from the
  1. secondary bronchi
  2. primary bronchi
  3. tertiary bronchi
  4. terminal bronchioles
  5. none of the above
  1. The alveolar wall is composed of a
  1. simple squamous epithelium
  2. stratified squamous epithelium
  3. simple columnar epithelium
  4. simple cuboidal epithelium
  5. dense connective tissues
  1. The left lung contains ___ lobes
  1. 2
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5
  5. 6
  1. Forced expiration is brought about mainly by the contraction of the
  1. internal intercostals
  2. external intercostals
  3. diaphragm
  4. pectoralis major
  5. serratus anterior
  1. During inspiration, the intrapleural pressure (quite breathing) would be approximately
  1. 760 mm
  2. 763 mm
  3. 754 mm
  4. 758 mm
  5. 735 mm
  1. The total lung capacity for men averages ___ ml.
  1. 4400
  2. 5900
  3. 4700
  4. 3400
  5. 3000
  1. The total volume is 400 ml and the respiratory rates is 10 breathes per minute. The minute volume would be
  1. 400 ml
  2. 40 ml
  3. 4000 ml
  4. 40,000 ml
  5. none of the above
  1. Labored breathing is termed
  1. eupnea
  2. apnea
  3. dysnea
  4. hyerpnea
  5. hypopnea
  1. The expiratory center is keyed by
  1. the stretch receptors
  2. the inspiratory center
  3. the pneumotaxic center
  4. the apneutic center
  5. the cerebral cortex
  1. The _____ center sends signals to the _______ center thereby limiting the period of inspiration.
  1. apneustic, expiratory
  2. pneumotaxic, expiratory
  3. pneumotaxic, inspiratory
  4. apneustic, inspiratory
  5. expiratory, inspiratory
  1. The stretch receptors of the lungs send inhibitory signals to the_________
  1. pneumotaxic center
  2. apneutic center
  3. inspiratory center
  4. expiratory center
  5. none the above
  1. CO2 can affect the respiratory rate by
  1. reacting with H2O to form carbonic acid
  2. forming carbonic acid which then forms bicarbonate and hydrogen ion
  3. altering the levels of hydrogen ion concentration
  4. altering arterial blood pH
  5. more than one is correct
  1. Reduced oxygen in the arterial blood will increase respiratory rate by
  1. increasing CO2 levels
  2. decreasing CO2 levels
  3. stimulating the chemorecptors
  4. increasing blood pH
  5. more than one is correct
  1. The cerebral cortex can
  1. increase respiratory rate
  2. decrease respiratory rate
  3. temporarily halt respiration
  4. alter the depth of inspiration
  5. more than one is correct
  1. Which of the following reflexes does not require than an inspiration occur immediately preceding the reflex action?
  1. cough
  2. valsalva
  3. sneeze
  4. swallowing
  5. more than one is correct
  1. The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases I s100mm Hg. The gases and their percentages in this mixture are: oxygen- 25%, nitrogen- 45%, carbon dioxide- 30%. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide would be
  1. 700 mm
  2. 300 mm
  3. 70 mm
  4. 30 mm
  5. none of the above
  1. About 10% to 20% of CO2 is transported in the blood in the form of
  1. dissolved plasma
  2. carbaminohemoglobiin
  3. oxyhemoglobin
  4. bicarbonate
  5. chloride
  1. Gases move from the blood to the tissues and from the tissues to the blood by means of
  1. osmosis
  2. active transport
  3. diffusion
  4. facilitated diffusion
  5. pinocytosis
  1. A person is known to have 10 grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood. The total volume of oxygen that this person could transport per 100 ml of blood would be
  1. 20 ml
  2. 13 ml
  3. 15 ml
  4. 10 ml
  5. 30 ml
  1. The enzyme which is responsible of speeding up the reaction of CO2 with H2O is
  1. carbon dioxidease
  2. bicarbonate
  3. carbonic anhydrase
  4. lactic dehydrogenase
  5. carbonic isomerase
  1. Which of the following conditions would most likely lead to a collapsed lung?
  1. Emphysema
  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning
  3. Open pneumathorax
  4. Pulmonary edema
  5. Asthma
  1. Which of the following is a function of the digestive system?
  1. ingestion
  2. chemical digestion
  3. mechanical breakup
  4. absorption
  5. more than one is correct
  1. The last region of the digestive tract is the
  1. esophagus
  2. small intestine
  3. stomach
  4. large intestine
  1. The lining of the digestive tract is referred to as the
  1. tunica aerosa
  2. tunica mucosa
  3. tunica musculosa
  4. tunica submucosa
  5. tunica adventitia
  1. Which of the following is a function of the liver?
  1. bile production
  2. cholesterol excretion
  3. plasma protein production
  4. regulation of carbohydrate metabolism
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The valve that separates the stomach from the small intestine is the
  1. upper esophageal valve
  2. lower esophageal valve
  3. pylorich valve
  4. ileo-cecal valve
  5. anal valve
  1. The reduction of food particle size by the teeth is termed
  1. micturition
  2. mastication
  3. masturbation
  4. myelination
  5. none of the above
  1. Which of the following is not a function of saliva?
  1. lubrication
  2. taste
  3. digestion of starch
  4. digestion of protein
  5. aids in speech
  1. During swallowing, the nasopharynx is closed off by the
  1. epiglottis
  2. tongue
  3. soft palate and uvula
  4. hard palate
  5. palatine tonsils
  1. Which of the following will initiate the flow of gastric juice?
  1. smell of food
  2. taste of food
  3. distension of stomach
  4. presence of acid chyme in duodenum
  1. Which of the following will increase gastric juice production?
  1. secretin
  2. cholecystokinin
  3. gastric inhibitory peptide
  4. gastrin
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The bulk of digestion occurs in the
  1. stomach
  2. small intestine
  3. large intestine
  4. liver
  5. none of the above
  1. Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to secret bicardonate?
  1. vagal reflex
  2. cholecystokinin
  3. secretin
  4. gastrin
  5. gastric inhibitory peptide
  1. The contraction of the gall bladder is brought about by
  1. a vagal reflex
  2. cholecystokinin
  3. secretin
  4. gastrin
  5. gastric inhibitory peptide
  1. Intestinal juice is produced by the
  1. pancreas
  2. liver
  3. small intestine mucosa
  4. small intestine submucosa
  5. large intestine mucosa
  1. In addition to a capillary network, an intestinal villus also contains a (an)
  1. nerve plexus
  2. stretch receptor
  3. lacteral
  4. mast cell
  5. none of the above
  1. Water is principally absorbed across the intestinal mucosa by
  1. active transport
  2. osmosis
  3. pinocytosis
  4. diffusion
  5. phagocytosis
  1. Which of the following is not a movement normally associated with the colon?
  1. mass peristalsis
  2. sluggish peristalsis
  3. defecation reflex
  4. segmentation
  5. peristalsis
  1. Vomiting is brought about by
  1. normal peristalsis
  2. mass peristalsis
  3. segmentation
  4. reverse peristalsis
  5. none of the above
  1. Oversecretion of the gastric glands can lead to
  1. peptic ulcer
  2. constipation
  3. diarrhea
  4. spastic colon
  5. none of the above
  1. Which of the following is an excretory organ?
  1. lungs
  2. skin
  3. kidney
  4. digestive tract
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. Urine is conducted to the outside via
  1. ureters
  2. the urethra
  3. the ilium
  4. the prostatic tube
  5. none of the above
  1. The indentation of the kidney where the blood vessels enter is termed the
  1. pelvis
  2. hilus
  3. major calyx
  4. minor calyx
  5. retroperitoneum
  1. Which of the following is not a function of the kidney
  1. excretion
  2. regulation of blood cell production
  3. regulation of blood pressure
  4. water balance
  5. regulation of carbohydrate metabolism
  1. The nephron is considered to be the functional unit of the kidney because
  1. the kidney is composed of nephrons
  2. nephrons are tubules
  3. they are the sites of urine formation
  4. nephrons have a unique circulation
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. For the nephron tubule, which of the following sequences is correct?
  1. proximal-bowman's capsule-distal-loop of henle
  2. bowman's capsule-distal-loop of henle-proximal
  3. bowman's capsule-proximal-loop of henle-distal
  4. loop of henle-bowman's capsule-proximal-distal
  5. none of the above
  1. Which of the following substances should not appear in the initial filtrate?
  1. water
  2. sodium
  3. glucose
  4. protein
  5. chloride
  1. Filtration occurs across the
  1. peritubular capillary bed
  2. glomerulus
  3. proximal convoluted tubule
  4. distal convoluted tubule
  5. minor calyx
  1. The GFR can be altered by
  1. constricting the afferent arteriole
  2. dilating the afferent arteriole
  3. constricting the efferent arteriole
  4. dilating the efferent arteriole
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The threshold value for citric acid is 50mg%. Urinalysis indicates the presence of citric acid in the urine. This would mean that the plasma concentration would be ____ mg%
  1. 10-20
  2. 20-30
  3. 30-40
  4. 40-50
  5. more than 50
  1. Water is reabsorbed by means of an osmotic gradient that is created by the active transport of
  1. sodium
  2. sugars
  3. amino acids
  4. other electrolytes
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The active transport of potassium from the peritubular capillary bed into the sephron tubule is an example of
  1. filtration
  2. readsorption
  3. secretion
  4. osmosis
  5. pinocytosis
  1. You would expect that the final urine would contain
  1. metabolic wastes
  2. water
  3. vitamins that were in excess of body needs
  4. sodium
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. Micturition involves all of the following except
  1. filling of the bladder with urine
  2. activation of the stretch receptors
  3. relaxation of the internal smooth muscle sphincter
  4. voluntary relaxation of the external voluntary muscle sphincter
  5. a sympathetic reflex
  1. The extracellular fluid compartment is divided into the
  1. intracellular, plasma, and tissue fluid
  2. plasma, tissue fluid, and lymph
  3. lymph and plasma
  4. lymph and tissue fluid
  5. none of the above
  1. An increase in the osmolarity of the plasma will result in
  1. movement of water into the tissues
  2. movement of water into the cells
  3. movement of water from the tissue fluid to the plasma
  4. movement of water from the tissue fluid into the kidney
  5. none of the above
  1. The greatest source of water intake is
  1. foods
  2. metabolic water
  3. ingested liquids
  4. shifts from the tissues
  5. none of the above
  1. Sodium levels and therefore fluid volumes may be decreased by increasing the level of
  1. serum sodium
  2. serum potassium
  3. aldosterone
  4. atrial natriuretic factor
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The great majority of water is readsorbed from the
  1. proximal convoluted tubule
  2. loop of henle
  3. distal convoluted tubule
  4. collecting tubule
  5. bladder
  1. The function of the hairpin countercurrent mechanism is to
  1. increase sodium readsorption
  2. increase potassium readsorption
  3. create an osmotic gradient in the tissue fluid
  4. alter the permeability of the collecting tubule
  5. more tan one of the above is correct
  1. In a person who is experiencing dehydration, you would expect that the collecting tubules would be
  1. highly permeable
  2. relatively permeable
  3. totally impermeable
  4. insensitive to ADH
  5. none of the above
  1. If the collecting tubules are freely permeable to water then you would expect that the final urine will be _______ to the plasma
  1. hypotonic
  2. isotonic
  3. hypertonic
  4. nontonic
  5. cannot be determined from the information provided
  1. Urea is concentrated for the final urine by the
  1. active transport of urea into the collecting tubules
  2. readsorption of water from the collecting tubule
  3. diffusion of urea into the proximal convoluted tubule
  4. diffusion of urea out of the distal convoluted tubule
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The major function of the vasa recta is to
  1. remove the salts tranported out of the ascending limp
  2. remove the water reabsorbed from the collecting tubules
  3. concentrate urea
  4. actively transport salts into the interstitial fluid
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. Potassium is regulated by means of
  1. ADH
  2. Aldosterone
  3. Atrial natriuretic factor
  4. The hair pin counter current multiplier system
  5. None of the above
  1. A person who was producing five liters of highly diluted urine per day would probably be suffering from
  1. glomerulonephritis
  2. diabetes insipidus
  3. diabetes melitus
  4. cystitis
  5. kidney stones
  1. Diuretics usually work by
  1. blocking the secretion of ADH
  2. blocking the effects of ADH on the kidney tubules
  3. decreasing the amount of water readsorbed
  4. increasing the volume of urine produced
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. In dialysis, the loss of needed plasma constituents is prevented by
  1. actively transporting these constituents back into the tubing
  2. maintaining proper concentrations of the constituents across the dialysis tubing
  3. preventing the movement of these constituents across the dialysis tubing
  4. preventing the exit of these constituents with the blood into the tubing
  5. none of the above
  1. With aging, the frequency of micturition increases. This is because the
  1. GFR has increased
  2. GFR has decreased
  3. Tubules have lost their ability to concentrate urine
  4. Tubules have increased their ability to concentrate urine
  5. None of the above
  1. An acid by definition is a substance which
  1. yield a hydrogen ion in solution
  2. accepts a hydrogen ion from solution
  3. turns litmus paper green
  4. increases the pH of a solution
  5. none of the above
  1. PH is of significance to living things because
  1. all water based solutions have a pH value
  2. pH values can range from 0 to 14
  3. basic pH values are always above 7
  4. all biochemical reactions are pH sensitive
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. Sodium bicarbonate buffers against rapid decreases in pH by
  1. converting a strong acid into a base
  2. converting a weak acid into a strong acid
  3. converting a strong acid into weak acid
  4. converting a weak acid into a base
  5. none of the above
  1. When respiration rate is increased, pH usually rises because
  1. carbon dioxide is removed from the body at an increased rate
  2. carbonic acid is being converted back into carbon dioxide and water
  3. bicarbonate is combining with hydrogen ion to form carbonic acid
  4. hydrogen ion is being lowered
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The major source of hydrogen ion in the body is
  1. ingested liquids
  2. foods
  3. water
  4. metabolism
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. Assuming that the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid is 20:1 at a normal blood pH, increasing that ration to 40:1 would result in
  1. an increase in blood pH
  2. a decrease in blood pH
  3. no change in blood pH
  4. a decrease in urine pH
  5. none of the above
  1. The kidney can alter blood pH by
  1. excreting hydrogen ion
  2. conserving hydrogen ion
  3. excreting bicarbonate
  4. conserving bicarbonate
  5. more than one of the above is correct
  1. The most common threat to proper pH balance is
  1. metabolic acidosis
  2. respiratory acidosis
  3. respiratory alkalosis
  4. metabolic alkalosis
  5. none of the above