FALL 2001

Instructor - David S.Smith Office - AC 359

      1. (voicemail)

Catalog Description of the Course

Biology 2401 and 2402 - 8 semester hours

A course dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the various systems of the human body. The first semester includes the cell, tissues, the skeletal system, muscular system, and nervous system. The second semester includes the blood and circulation, immune response and other defense systems, the respiratory, excretory, endocrine, reproductive, and digestive systems. Fulfills the pre-nursing requirement in human anatomy and physiology. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.

Determination of Grades

The final grade of each semester will be determined upon an average basis. Grading is on a 60 to l00 system as follows.

Final Average Course Grade

90 -- 100 A

80 -- 89 B

70 – 79 C

60 – 69 D

< 60 F

There will be four lecture examinations and three laboratory examinations. All examinations have equal value and will constitute 75% of the final grade A comprehensive final examination will make up the remainder of the final grade. Completion of the science module is also a course requirement. Students who miss an examination, and have a valid excuse, will be permitted to take a makeup examination. All makeup examinations are given during final examination week or during a time that is convenient with the instructor. Only one makeup examination is permitted. At the end of the semester certain students may find themselves on the borderline between two possible grades (e.g. 79.75). The instructor will then assign a grade based upon his best judgement. Such things as class attendance, attitude, participation in the laboratory, and effort expended on the science module, will be considered. Any student missing three or more classes or who fails to take an examination not be considered for the higher grade. At the end of the semester any student with a 90% or better average for all seven examinations will be exempt from the final examination.

Science Module

Completion of the science module is a course requirement. The science module consists of an essay (PSM1) and activities sheet (PSM2). You can print both items from the web site of the Biology Study Center by going to and look for PRINTOUTS and under my name. You can get both items from the Student Assistant at BSC. After you have completed the activities sheet return it to the study center director. Students completing the science module by the sixth week will have five points added to their lowest test score. There will be ten questions on the final examination concerning the science module. Students who have previously completed the science module for another class will read several articles dealing with the nature of science (PSM4). These are on reserve in the study center. Upon completion of these articles, a one page written summary of each article will be completed and returned to the study center director.

Textbooks and Required Materials

Course Syllabus – Supplied

Marieb, Elaine N., Human Anatomy and Phyiology, Addison Wesley Longman, Publisher, 5e, 2001

Davenport, Stephen, Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual,

2ed. 1996


Copies of lecture examinations (PSM13 - 16) given in past years as well as copies of current lecture notes (PSM11) are available from the study center. Notes maybe checked out on a 24 hour checkout basis. Examinations must be used in the study center and copied there if so desired. Much of this material is now available on-line from the Study Center web site.

The address is

Grade Record

You should write in each test grade in the spaces provided below. You will then be aware of your current average at any time in the course and will be able to calculate your final average and grade at the end of the semester.

1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5._______6.________ 7.________


Study Center

Room 350 is the Biology Study Center. Students may study both lecture and laboratory materials at their own pace in the study center. Computer, videotapes, laboratory, and reference materials are available. Code letters represent the following types of materials.

C - Computer programs

V - Video tapes

PSM - Printed material

Class Attendance

Students are expected to attend all regularly scheduled lectures and laboratories. A student missing the equivalence of two weeks of class (four TR or six MWF) class days will be dropped from the course unless previous arrangements have been made with the instructor. Note that two tardies count as an absence.


All classes begin promptly at the designated starting time. Students are expected to be in their seats at the beginning of the class period. Two tardies will count as an absence. Students returning late from class breaks during split sessions will be counted tardy. Students are expected to remain for the duration of the class. Any student leaving prior to class dismissal will be counted absent for the entire period. The only exception will be emergencies that occur during the class or prior consent of the instructor.

Classroom rules

  1. Eating, drinking, and gum chewing are strictly prohibited in the classroom.
  2. Cell phones and pagers must be turned off during class.
  3. Tape recorders are permitted, but not on days when examination results are being discussed. Any student found recording an examination discussion session will be dismissed from the course with a failing grade.
  4. During examinations students are expected to keep their answer sheets covered at all times with the cover sheet provided. Any student who fails to keep his or her answer sheet covered will automatically have ten points removed from their examination grade.
  5. Students are expected to remain in the classroom for the entire class period. Any student who finds it necessary to leave the classroom while class is in session will not be permitted to return during that class session.

Student conduct

The highest standards of conduct are expected from all students. Actions by students which detract from the learning environment will not be tolerated. The instructor reserves the right to dismiss any student from class and/or the course who engages in behavior that is disruptive and/or detracts from the learning environment. Such behavior includes (but is not limited to) conducting private conversations during lecture and sleeping in class. The instructor also reserves the right to assign student seating. Cheating on examinations in any form will result in automatic dismissal from the class with a failing grade. The instructor may also recommend to the appropriate Dean that the student(s) involved be expelled from San Antonio College.

Office Hours

The instructor will be available for help and consultation during the following times.

Monday through Friday 0730 – 0800

Monday, Wednesday, and Friday 1130 – 1200

Tuesday and Thursday 1230 – 0140

Other times by appointment

General Information

Examinations will normally consist of multiple choice and/or completion type questions. Essay questions may sometimes be included. Exams will usually consist of from 60 to l00 questions. The final examination will consist of l20 questions. All examination questions will be based upon the learning objectives that are included with this syllabus. Students are encouraged to ask questions in class when a point or concept needs clarification. Students who are having difficulty are encouraged to seek help from the instructor either during scheduled office hours or by appointment.

Text Objectives

At the end of each set of learning objectives you will find a section entitled "text objectives." These are objectives based upon material found in the textbook but not discussed in lecture. The instructor will not answer questions in class about these objectives. The instructor will discuss these objectives on an individual basis after class.



Study Advice

The subject of this course is very interesting and one that is very relevant to allied health careers and everyday life. It is a complex subject with a technical vocabulary and numerous principles that must be mastered. Below you will find a series of suggestions that if followed will guarantee successful completion of the course.

l. You have been furnished a lecture outline along with reading

assignments. Before each lecture read over the outline so that you will be aware of the topics to be covered. Use it as an organizational skeleton to arrange your notes around. Use it in conjunction with the learning objectives as a form of review.

2. Read your text assignments before you come to class. It will surprise you how much more you will understand of what is subsequently discussed in lecture.

3. Study very carefully the learning objectives. All examination questions will come from these objectives. Mastery of the objectives will insure mastery of course material. Use the objectives in conjunction with the old examinations that are on file in the study center. In this way you will begin to understand how examination questions are developed from the objectives. You will find it useful to write out the appropriate responses for each objective.

4. Study every day. Do not wait until the night before the examination or you will be overwhelmed. A large amount of materials covered in this course but if you master it as it is covered you will have minimum difficulty. After lecture read through your notes: check your organization. Do you understand everything that was presented? Read the text assignment again (assuming your read it the first time). Examine the learning objectives and see which ones were covered in that particular lecture. After several days read through your notes again. By doing this on a continuous basis you will find that the material becomes fixed in your mind. It takes such a very little time to read through your notes on a daily basis but the results can be dramatic.

5. If you need help, get it. Ask questions in class. Seek out the instructor after class for additional help. San Antonio College has peer tutoring services available. Consult with your instructor if you feel you need a tutor.

6. Form a study group. Three to five students is usually a good size. Work together, quiz each other, and explain concepts to each other.

Additional reading

While your textbook is designed to provide you with basic information concerning this subject, it is by the nature of the printing process, usually out of date by the time it is first published. It is for this reason that weekly or monthly journals are the main method by which new scientific discoveries are disseminated. There are literally thousands of biomedical specialty journals. Most of these are designed for specialists in a given area of research or clinical practice. The journals in the following list are more general in nature and are readily available at most newsstands and public libraries. Students wishing to stay abreast of scientific developments should make it a habit to peruse one or more of these journals.

1. Discovery - This is a popular monthly journal of general science. Frequently topics of a physiological interest are covered. Available at most newsstands, libraries, and by subscription.

2. Natural History - This journal is published by the American Museum of Natural History. It contains a wide variety of articles of biological interest. The monthly essay by Stephen Jay Gould of Harvard University frequently deals with the nature and philosophy of science. It is a monthly publication which is available at most news stands, libraries, and by subscription.

3. Science - This is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the largest member scientific society in the world. It contains technical articles which are usually of interest only to specialists, but it also contains review articles and research news written for all audiences. Although it covers all areas of science it has a strong biomedical emphasis. If any discovery in science appears to have major significance, it will appear somewhere in "Science." Published weekly, this journal is available in most libraries.

4. Science News - This little weekly is only about twelve pages long but manages to cover most of the important happenings in science. Written in an engaging and lively style, this may be thought of as the "Readers Digest" of popular science. While this publication is available at most libraries, a subscription is a must for anyone truly interested in keeping current in science.

  1. Scientific American - This excellent monthly magazine represents a hybrid of a technical journal and a popular magazine. Each article is written by an expert in the field and represents the current status of knowledge for the subject covered. This one is always worth looking through. Available at libraries, newsstands, and by subscription.

World Wide Web

The Internet and World Wide Web have created a revolution in information finding and retrieval. Large volumes of information are available about the subject of this course. The publisher of your textbook maintains a web page ( which you should find very useful. Students have access to the web in the computer laboratory of the biology study center, and also in the library (Moody Learning Center).



I. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1

A. Definitions

l. Anatomy

2. Physiology

B. Characteristics of life

C. Levels of organization

D. Homeostasis

l. Negative feedback

2. Positive feedback

II. The Chemical Basis of Life Chapter 2 A. Elements and atoms

B. Atomic structure

C. Atomic number

D. Atomic weight

E. Molecules

F. Molecular weight

G. Chemical bonds

1. Covalent bonds

2. Hydrogen bonds

H. Ionization and ionic bonds

I. Dissociation and electrolytes

J. pH

K. Acids and bases

L. Buffers

M. Isotopes

N. Solutions

a. Definitions

b. Expressing concentrations

  1. Organic compounds

1. Monomers and polymers

a. Dehydration synthesis

b. Hydrolysis

2. Classes of organic compounds

a. Carbohydrates

    1. Lipids
    2. Proteins
    3. Nucleic acids

P. Enzymes

III. Cellular basis of life Chapter 3.

A. Cell theory

B. Cell structure - Organelles

1. Plasma membrane

a. Fluid mosaic model

b. Functions

2. Cytoplasm skeleton

a. Cytoskeleton

b. Cytoplasmic organelles

(1) Endoplasmic reticulum

(2) Ribosomes

(3) Golgi apparatus

(4) Lysosomes

(5) Peroxisomes

(6) Mitochondria

(7) Locomotor organelles

(8) Centrioles

3. Nucleus

a. Nuclear membrane

b. Chromosomes

c. Nucleolus

C. Mechanisms of transmembrane movement C20

1. Diffusion

2. Osmosis

3. Filtration

4. Carrier-mediated transport

5. Vesicular transport

D. Cell Functions - Energetics Chapter 25 V10.41

1. Energy transformations

2. Biological oxidations

3. Energy production

a. Krebs cycle

b. Electron transport system

c. Carbohydrate oxidation

d. Fat oxidation

e. Protein oxidation

E. Cell functions - Synthesis Chapter 3

1. Nucleic acid synthesis a. DNA

    1. DNA

b. RNA

2. Protein synthesis G. Cell functions - Reproduction

  1. Cell functions – Reproduction

1. Interphase

2. Mitosis V10.4

3. Cytokinesis

G. Cellular pathology - Cancer


IV. The Tissue Level of Organization Chapter 4

A. Tissue

B. Intercellular membrane junctions Chapter 3 (p 70 & 71)

1. Tight junctions

2. Desmosomes

3. Gap junctions

C. Tissue types

D. Epithelial tissues

1. General characteristics

2. Classification

a. Number of layers

b. Cell shape

c. Variations

3. Membranes

4. Glands

E. Connective tissues

1. General characteristics

2. Connective tissue fibers

a. Collagenous

b. Elastic

c. Reticular

3. Ground substance

4. Connective tissue cell types

5. Connective tissue types

a. Loose

b. Dense collagenous (fibrous)

c. Dense elastic

d. Adipose

e. Reticular

f. Cartilage

g. Bone

h. Blood and lymph

6. Connective tissue framework

E. Muscle tissue

F. Nervous tissue

V. Organization of the Body

A. Anatomical orientation Chapter l

1. Anatomical position

2. Terms of direction (p. 16 - 24)

3. Regional terms

4. Planes of section

B. Body cavities

1. Dorsal

2. Ventral

C. Organ systems

VI. Integumentary system Chapter 5

A. Functions

B. Anatomy

1. Epidermis

2. Dermis

3. Skin thickness

4. Epidermal derivatives

a. Skin glands

b. Hair



c. Nails

C. Skin color

VII. The Skeletal System Chapter 6

A. Functions

B. Bone types

C. Bone structure

1. Gross structure of bone

a. External anatomy

b. Internal anatomy

c. Bone markings

2. Microscopic structure

a. Compact bone

b. Cancellous bone

D. Ossification

1. Membranous formation

2. Replacement (endochondral) formation

E. Basic skeletal plan

F. Major divisions Chapter 7

1. Axial division

a. Skull

(1) Cranium

(2) Face

b. Vertebral column

c. Ribs

d. Sternum

2. Appendicular division

a. Girdles

(1) Pectoral girdle

(2) Pelvic girdle

b. Appendages

(l) Upper appendage

(2) Lower appendage

G. Fractures

VIII. Articulations Chapter 8

A. Function

B. Types of articulations

1. Fibrous

a. Suture

    1. Syndesmosis
    2. gomphoses

2. Cartilaginous

a. Synchondrosis

b. Symphysis

3. Synovial

a. Articular capsule

b. Articular cartilage

c. Synovial membrane

4. Types of synovial joints

    1. Uniaxial
      1. Hinge
      2. Pivot

b. Biaxial joints

(1) Condyloid joint

(2) Saddle joint

c. Multiaxial joints

(l) Ball and socket joint

d. Nonaxial joints

C. Types of movement

D. Special joints

1. Tempro-mandibular

2. Elbow

3. Gleno-humeral

4. Hip

5. Knee

E. Anatomy of a representative joint

F. Disorders


IX. Introduction to excitable tissues Chapter 11

A. Excitablity

B. Responses of excitable tissues

1. Primary response

2. Secondary response

C. Stimulus

D. Classes of stimuli

E. Conduction

F. The resting membrane potential

l. Polarized membranes

2. Establishment of polarization

G. Nature of the initial response

H. Mechanism of the action potential

I. Threshold and local potentials

J. All or none principle

K. Refractory periods

X. Muscle Chapter 9

A. Muscle types and functions

1. Skeletal muscle

2. Smooth muscle

3. Cardiac muscle

B. Skeletal muscle

l. Gross anatomy

2. Histology

3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum

5. Myoneural junction

C. Mechanisms of muscle contraction

l. Impulse transmission across myoneural junction

2. Contraction

3. Relaxation

D. Energy for contraction

E. Physiological properties of skeletal muscle

1. Contraction delay time

2. Response to repetitive stimuli

3. Effect of initial length

F. Organization of skeletal muscle

G. Types of skeletal muscle contraction

1. Isotonic

2. Isometric

H. Types of muscle fibers

1. Fast twitch red

2. Slow twitch red

3. Fast twitch white

I. Muscle fatigue

J. Oxygen debt

K. Effects of activity

1. Isometric exercise

2. Isotonic exercise

L. General aspects of skeletal muscles Chapter 10

1. General remarks

2. Attachment to skeleton

3. Origin and insertion

4. Actions

5. Nomenclature

M. Selected pathologies

N. Effects of aging

O. Smooth muscle Chapter 9

1. Structure

2. Contraction

3. Classes

a. Multiunit

b. Unitary

4. Comparison to skeletal muscle


XI. Cellular basis of the nervous system Chapter 11

A. Neurons

1. Structure

2. Classification

a. Functional

b. Structural

B. Neuroglial cells

1. Astrocytes

2. Oligodendrocytes

3. Ependymal cells

4. Microgliocytes

C. Physiology of neurons

l. Properties of the neuron

2. Synapses

a. Electrical

b. Chemical

(l) Chemical transmission

(2) Neurotransmitters

3. Physiological properties of the synapse

a. Synaptic delay

b. One-way conduction

c. Summation

d. Facilitation

e. Fatigue

    1. EPSP and IPSP
    2. Convergence and divergence

    1. Presynaptic inhibition
    2. potentiation

D. Neuromodulators

XII. Functional anatomy of the nervous system Chapter 12

A. Organization

l. CNS

2. PNS

a. Afferent division

b. Efferent division

(1) Somatic

(2) Autonomic

B. Embryology

C. Definitions

1. Nerve

2. Tract

3. Ganglion

4. Nucleus

5. Center

6. Gray matter

7. White matter

D. Protection of the CNS

1. Bone

2. Meninges

a. Dura mater

b. Arachnoid

c. Pia mater

3. Cerebrospinal fluid

E. Cavities of the CNS

1. Ventricles

2. Production of CSF

F. Brain

1. Telencephalon

a. Cerebrum

(1) Cortex

(2) White fibers

(3) Lobes

(4) Functional areas of the cortex

(5) Basal ganglia

(6) Internal capsule

b. Hemisphere specialization

2. Diencephalon

a. Epithalamus

b. Thalamus

c. Hypothalamus

d. Limbic system

3. Mesencephalon

a. Cerebral peduncles

b. Corpora quadrigemina

4. Metencephalon

a. Pons

b. Cerebellum

5. Myelencephalon

a. Reticular formation

G. Spinal cord

1. Function

2. Anatomy

H. Peripheral nerves Chapter 13

1. Cranial nerves

2. Spinal nerves

XIII. Operational aspects of the nervous system

A. Organizational pattern

B. Control of movement

C. Spinal reflexes

1. Monosynaptic reflex

2. Polysynaptic reflex

3. Reciprocal innervation

4. Crossed extensor reflex

5. Influences of higher centers

D. Voluntary movement

1. Corticospinal tracts Chapter 15

2. Extracortical spinal tracts

E. Memory and learning

F. Sleep

G. Pathologies of the CNS

XIV. Autonomic nervous system Chapter l4

A. Function

B. Basic divisions

C. General anatomy

D. Anatomy of sympathetic division

E. Anatomy of parasympathetic division

F. Physiology of the ANS

1. Neurotransmitters

2. Receptors

a. Acetylcholine receptors

b. Norepinephrine receptors

3. General effects

4. Specific effects

5. Maintenance of homeostasis

6. Role of the hypothalamus

a. Regulation of body temperature

b. Fever

G. Biofeedback

XV. Sensory System Chapter l6

A. Sensory unit

1. Receptor

2. Neural pathway

3. Interpreting center

B. Classification of receptors

1. Exteroceptors

2. Visceroceptors

3. Proprioreceptors

C. Characteristics of receptors

1. Transducers

2. Adaptation

3. Law of specific energies

D. Functioning of receptors

E. Types of senses

1. Cutaneous senses

a. Encapsulated nerve endings

b. Free nerve endings

c. Neural pathways

2. Proprioreceptors

a. Tendon receptors

b. Muscle spindle

c. Joint receptors

3. Taste and smell

4. Eye and vision

a. Anatomy

b. Mechanism of vision

c. Receptor cells

5. Ear

a. Anatomy

b. Mechanism of hearing

c. Equilibrium

F. Pathologies of the senses




Upon completion of the lectures and assigned readings for this section you should be able to accomplish the following items.

l. Define anatomy. Describe the various subdivisions of anatomy including gross, microscopic, cytology, histology, and ultrastructure.

2. List and describe the major non-invasive techniques currently utilized to study anatomy.

3. Define physiology.

4. List and describe the five characteristics of life. Explain why life cannot be defined and must instead be described.

5. List and describe the levels of organization found in the living world.

6. Explain why knowledge of atoms, molecules, and cells is essential for the understanding of the structure and function of organs.

7. Explain what is meant by homeostasis and why it is considered to be the basis of physiology.

8. Explain what is meant by negative feedback and how it contributes to homeostasis. What is positive feedback? How does it affect homeostasis?

9. Define and/or describe the following.

Atom, atomic wt., base, element, molecular wt., isotope, proton, atomic nucleus, electrolyte, neutron, molecule, dissociation, electron, and acid.

10. Given the atomic composition of a molecule and the atomic weights of the atoms involved, calculate the molecular weight.

ll. Describe how the covalent bond is formed. Explain what polar and non-polar covalent bonds are, and how this effects the electrical characteristics of molecules made up of these two types of covalent bond.

l2. Explain how hydrogen bonds form. What is the significance of hydrogen bonding to living things.

l3. Describe the process of ionization and the formation of ionic bonds.

l4. For pH be able to accomplish the following:

a. define ph.

b. state the effects of the following on pH values.

l. increase hydrogen ion concentration.

2. decrease hydrogen ion concentration.

3. increase acidity.

4. increase alkalinity.

c. state the significance of pH for living systems.

l5. Define buffer. Describe how buffers work. Give examples of three major buffers found in the body.

l6. Define what organic compounds are. Explain the properties of carbon that make possible the large organic molecules associated with life.

l7. Explain the significance of radioactive isotopes for anatomy and physiology. Describe PET.

l8. Define monomer and polymer. Describe the process of dehydration synthesis and explain its significance for biological molecules.

l9. Describe the process of hydrolysis.

20. For carbohydrates

a. state their atomic composition.

b. state their functions.

c. define monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide, giving examples of each.

2l. For lipids

a. state their atomic composition.

b. state their functions.

c. list the types of compounds included in the class.

d. explain the property that they all have in common.

e. describe the synthesis of a triglyceride.

22. For proteins

a. state their atomic composition.

b. state their subunits and describe a typical one.

c. describe the formation of the peptide bond.

d. describe the four levels of structure in proteins .

e. explain the biological significance of the tertiary and quaternary levels.

f. describe the effects of pH, heat, ion concentrations, etc. on tertiary and quaternary structure.

g. list the five functions of proteins in the body.

23. Describe what enzymes are and what they do. Explain how they go about catalysis. Be sure to include active site and energy of activation in your explanation.

24. Explain what a coenzyme is and what the major sources of most coenzymes in the body are.

25. Define solution, solvent, and solute. Explain what a percentage solution is. State how you would prepare a given percentage solution using wt./wt., vol./vol., and wt./vol. Explain why wt./wt. and wt./vol. solutions become one and the same when water is the solvent.

26. When given the formula for a molecule and the appropriate atomic wts. of the atoms in that molecule, state how a molar solution or fraction there of would be prepared.

27. State the cell theory.

28. State the functions of the plasma membrane in describe its structure in accordance with the fluid mosaic model.

29. Describe the cytoplasm and the cytoplasm skeleton. Be sure to include all three filament types and the supposed function of each. Be able to list all of the cytoplasmic organelles discussed in lecture, describe the structure of each one, and state the function of each one.

30. Describe the nucleus and nucleolus including their functions.

3l. State the composition and function of the chromosomes.

32. List and describe the methods by which materials move across cell membranes.

33. Relate the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure to the ease with which polar and nonpolar molecules will diffuse across the membrane.

34. Explain what is meant by osmotic pressure. With reference to the cell, explain the terms hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic. Given two solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane, state in which direction water will move.

35. Define endocytosis and exocytosis. Describe the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis.

36. Explain why the sun is considered to be the ultimate source of energy for the cells of our bodies.

37. State the laws of thermodynamics. Explain what is meant by entropy. Explain why very low entropy systems such as cells are able to maintain their organization in spite of the second law of thermodynamics. When given a series of objects of varying degrees of complexity, be able to state which would be the lower (or higher) entropy system.

38. Define the process of oxidation and reduction. Be able to equate energy gain and loss with the two processes. Explain how most biological oxidations occur.

39. Describe what the cell does with the energy released by oxidation-reduction reactions.

40. Explain what ATP is, how it is obtained from ADP, and why it is considered to be the "energy currency" of the cell.

4l. For cellular respiration, be able to accomplish the following.

a. Write the summary equation.

b. Describe glycolysis including the number of hydrogen transferred to NAD, the number of ATP generated, and the end product.

c. Explain what happens to pyruvic acid both in the presence of oxygen and in its absence including the end products and the numbers of hydrogen atoms transferred to NAD.

d. Explain the role of NAD in the entire process.

e. Describe the Krebs's cycle including the numbers of ATP generated, the numbers of hydrogen removed and transferred to NAD, and the number of carbons in each of the key intermediate compounds.

f. Describe the electron transport system including the starting hydrogen (electron) acceptor and the final acceptor. Indicate the total numbers of electrons which pass through the system and the numbers of ATP generated per pair. Explain why the acceptance of two pairs of electrons by FAD reduces the total number of ATP generated by two. Briefly explain the chemiosmotic theory of ATP production.

g. Summarize all of the ATP production per glucose molecule by phase of the overall process.

h. Describe Beta oxidation of fats.

i. Describe how proteins may be utilized for energy production.

42. Describe the structure of DNA. Be sure to include the appropriate sugar, phosphate, and the four base groups.

43. Describe the process of DNA replication. Given a section of DNA, be able to state the sequence of nucleotides of the complimentary strand.

44. Describe how RNA differs from DNA. List the three types of RNA. Explain how RNA is synthesized.

45. Describe how amino acids are coded for in the DNA molecule.

46. Describe protein synthesis. Be sure to include triplet code words, codons, anticodons, transcription, translation, ribosomes, mRNA, and tRNA.

47. Explain the sequence of events, beginning with the DNA molecule, which are necessary for a visible genetic trait to appear.

48. Describe the cell cycle. List and explain the four subphases of interphase. Describe the four major phases of mitosis and the principal events of each phase. Explain what cytokinesis means. Explain why mitosis is not the same thing as cell division. Name one cell that undergoes mitosis but not cytokinesis.

49. For cancer be able to accomplish the following.

a. Define neoplasm, oncology, metastasis, angiogenin, and carcinogen.

b. Describe what is meant by contact inhibition and its significance in terms of cancer.

c. List the 7 types of cancer discussed in lecture and the tissue each arises from.

d. Describe the current theory of the causes of cancer. Be sure to include oncogene, tumor suppresor gene, mutation, and multiple hits. Relate these to carcinogens and viruses.

e. List and describe the three major types of cancer treatment.


Upon completion of the lectures and assigned readings for this section you should be able to accomplish the following items.

l. Describe the three principal types of intercellular membrane junctions.

2. List the four basic types of tissues that make up the body. Name and describe the structure of each of the tissues listed below. Name the characteristic cell type of each, and list typical parts of the body in which each tissue would be found.

Epithelia tissues

a. Simple squamous

b. Stratified squamous

c. Cuboidal

d. Columnar

e. Pseuodstratified ciliated columnar

f. Transitional

Connective tissues

a. Loose

b. Dense collagenous

c. Dense elastic

d. Adipose

e. Reticular

f. Cartilage (3 types)

g. Bone

h. Blood and lymph

3. List and describe the epithelial membranes found in the body. State the. functions of each type of membrane and where in the body they are found.

4. Describe the make up of glands. Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands. List, describe, and give examples of the three types of exocrine glands.

5. Compare epithelial and connective tissue as to numbers (or density) of cells versus the amounts of intercellular material.

6. List and describe the three types of fibers found in connective tissues. What is the origin of these fibers?

7. List the cells of connective tissue.

8. Describe the ground substance of connective tissue and state its origin.

9. Define and apply the terms of direction that were discussed in lecture.

l0. Describe the types of cuts that the three planes of section divide the body into.

ll. List and describe the location of the major anatomical regions of the body surface. list the major body cavities and their subdivisions.

l2. List the ten organ systems and briefly define the function of each.

l3. Differentiate between thick and thin skin.

l4. Describe the structure of the epidermis, including the 5 layers.

l5. Explain the basis of skin color and explain why exposure to UV light produces tanning.

l6. Describe the dermal layer of the skin including its two major layers.

l7. Describe the major glands of the skin and where they are found.

l8. Describe the anatomy of the hair and its follicle. Be sure to include where the actual growth occurs.

l9. Describe the structure of nails including the nail bed. lunula, eponychium, and hyponychium. Explain why pressing on the nail causes it to turn white.

20. List and describe the major functions of skin.

2l. State the five functions of the skeletal system.

22. List and give examples of the six classes of bones.

23. Describe the gross structure of a typical long bone. Be sure to include your description diaphysis, epiphysis;, epiphyseal plate, articular cartilage, periosteum, endosteum, compact bone, cancellous bone, marrow cavity, red marrow, and yellow marrow.

24. Define each of the terms describing bone markings found on page l95 of your text.

25. Describe the microscopic structure of bone including all parts of the Haversian system. Explain the difference between compact and cancellous bone at the microscopic level.

26. Describe in detail the two types of ossification. State which bones of the body are formed by each method.

27. Explain what a fontanel is.

28. Explain the difference between osteoblast, osteoclast, and osteocyte.

29. Explain how the basic plan of the human skeleton is like a suspension bridge.

30. List the major divisions and subdivisions of the skeleton as presented in the course outline. State the typical number of bones found in each subdivision.

3l. List the five major regions of the vertebral column, the number of bones in each region, and the key diagnostic features of the vertebrae in each region.

32. Describe the conditions of kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis.

33. Describe hope the appendages are attached to the axial skeleton by the girdles. List and describe the bones involved in the attachment. Explain the differences in attachment of the upper and lower extremities. State the advantage and disadvantage of each type of attachment.

34. Describe the pattern of the skeleton in the appendages. What are the similarities between upper and lower appendages and what are the differences.

35. State the advantage of the numerous bones found in the hands and feet.

36. Describe the arches of the foot. State the advantages of support that these arches convey.

37. Describe a simple, compound, and greenstick fracture. Describe how fractured bone repairs its self.

38. Define articulation and arthrology.

39. State the basis for the classification of joints into three major groups.

40. Describe fibrous joints. Describe the three major examples.

4l. Describe cartilaginous joints. Describe the two types major examples.

42. Describe the structure of a synovial joint including all relevant parts.

43. Describe synovial membrane, state its function, and list three structures or places in the body where it is found.

44. Describe a bursa and state its function. State what the condition of bursitis is due to.

45. Classify synovial joints into four groups based upon their movement.

46. List the kinds of synovial joints (i.e., hinge) that occur in each of the four major classes and give an example from the body of each kind.

47. Define each of the types of movement which joints permit as discussed in lecture.

48. Name the five unique or significant joints as listed in the course outline and discussed in lecture. Briefly describe those features which make them special.

49. Explain the conditions of sprain, dislocation, and arthritis.


l. Describe tissue repair.

2. List the major cell types found in the epidermis and describe their function.

3. Describe the structure of multicellular exocrine glands.

4. List and describe the classification of burns.

5. Describe osteoporosis.


Upon completion of the lectures and assigned readings for this section your should be able to accomplish the following items.

l. Define excitability and apply it to cells in general and excitable tissues in particular.

2. Describe the responses of excitable tissue to an adequate stimulus.

3. Define what is meant by stimulus and describe the three characteristics that an adequate stimulus must have.

4. Define conduction with reference to excitable tissues.

5. List and describe the three types of electrical potentials found on cell membranes. Describe the four types of ion channels which are responsible for these potentials, and associate each type of ion channel with one of the three potentials.

6. Explain how the resting potential is established. Be sure to explain the role of leak channels.

7. List the four major classes of stimuli and be able to state those that occur in the body.

8. Describe the generation of local potentials. Explain how they differ from the resting potential and the action potential.

  1. Describe in detail the nature of the initial response (action potential). Be sure to include depolarization and repolarization. Describe the electrical changes and the ionic events that are responsible for them. Be able to diagram an action potential showing the movement of ions during the various phases. Define threshold. Relate local potentials, threshold, and the action potential. Explain how ligand gates channels and voltage gated channels are relevant to threshold and the action potential.

l0. Explain what is meant by the refractory period. Explain the cause of the refractory period. List typical refractory periods for neurons, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle.

ll. Explain what the all or none law means.

l2. List the three major types of muscle and the features of each.

l3. Diagram and label a cross section of a typical skeletal muscle.

l4. Describe the fine structure of a skeletal muscle cell to the level of the myofilaments.

l5. Describe in detail the structure of the sarcomere including the kinds of protein found in it.

l6. Describe the neuromuscular junction and explain how the action potential crosses it.

l7. Describe latent period.

l8. Describe the responses of skeletal muscle to a single stimuli and also to repetitive stimuli.

l9. Explain what the relation between initial length and the force of contraction is in skeletal muscle.

20. Describe motor units and be able to state the average numbers of muscle cells per motor unit for the various types of muscles in the body.

2l. Describe in detail the mechanism of muscle contraction.

22. List and describe the two major types of contraction.

23. Describe the mechanism of rigor mortis.

24. Explain where the energy for contraction comes from. List the three major sources of energy. Describe anaerobic respiration as an energy source and explain its significance.

25. Describe the condition of oxygen debt. Relate oxygen debt to lactic acid.

26. Describe the three basic types of skeletal muscle fiber and how each functions.

27. List the causes of muscle fatigue.

28. Describe the organization of smooth muscle.

29. Explain the mechanism of muscle contraction in smooth muscle. Be sure to include the origins of calcium influx, the role of calmodulin, myosin light chain kinase, intermediate filaments, and myosin light chain phosphatase.

30. Compare and contrast unitary and multiunit smooth muscle as to function, innervation, and location.

31. Describe what is meant by ephatic conduction and explain its mechanism.

32. Describe plasticity as regards smooth muscle

33. Describe what antagonistic groups of muscles are.

34. List and describe the ways by which muscles are attached to bones.

35. Define origin and insertion.

36. List and describe the seven methods by which muscles are named.

37. Define primer mover and synergist.

38. Describe how muscles work across joints to provide movement.

39. Describe the effects of both isometric and isotonic exercise on skeletal muscle.

40. List and describe three muscle pathologies.

41. Describe the effects of aging on the muscular system.


l. Be able to label all of the muscles in the figures located on pages. 329 and 331 of your text on those particular diagram or similar diagrams. (Hint - If you locate as many of these muscles on your own bodies you will find it easier to memorize them.)

2. State the action of the following muscles.

Frontalis, temporalis, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, masseter, buccinator, sternocleidomastoid, deltoid, pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior, internal oblique, rectus femoris, gracilis, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and gastrocnemius.


Upon completion of the lectures and assigned readings for this section your should be able to accomplish the following items.

l. Describe the function of the nervous system.

2. Describe the basic organization of the nervous system including the subdivisions of the CNS and PNS.

3. List all three cell types which make up the nervous system including the four types of neuroglial cells. Be able to state the function of each one.

4. Describe in detail the structure of a neuron. Be sure to include cell body, Nissl bodies, neurofibrils, dendrites, axons, myelin sheath, neurilemma, and nodes of Ranvier.

5. Classify neurons by function and structure.

6. Explain what is meant by saltatory conduction and state its significance.

7. List two factors which effect conduction velocity. State the maximum conduction velocity normally found and describe the kind of neuron which exhibit the maximum rate.

8. Define what is meant by synapse, presynaptic neuron, and postsynaptic neuron.

9. Explain how the action potential is transmitted across a chemical synapse.

l0. List three excitatory neurotransmitters and three inhibitory neurotransmitters.

ll. Describe an electrical synapse. Why are they not considered to be as significant as chemical synapses.

l2. Explain and/or describe the following physiological properties of the synapses.

a. Synaptic delay

b. One-way conduction

c. Summation (temporal and spatial)

d. Facilitation

e. Fatigue

  1. f. EPSP and IPSP
  2. g. Convergence and divergence

  3. h. Presynaptic inhibition

i. Potentiation

l3. What are neuromodulators? How do they differ from neurotransmitters? What is their chemical nature? Approximately how many different ones are currently known? Name four different chemicals which function as neuromodulators.

l4. Define nerve, tract, ganglion, nucleus, center, gray matter, and white matter.

l5. List the three protective devices of the CNS. List and describe the three meningeal membranes.

l6. Explain what is meant by meningitis.

l7. Describe the embryology of the nervous system. Be sure to include the three embryonic regions of the brain and the adult regions they give rise to.

l8. Describe the cavities of the CNS. Be sure you can list them in order.

l9. Explain how CSF is formed. Where is it found? How is it reabsorbed?

20. Describe hydrocephalus and its cause.

2l. List the fiver major regions of the adult brain and the structures included in each region.

22. Describe the anatomy of the cerebrum. Be sure to include hemispheres, cortex, longitudinal fissure, sulci, gyri, convolutions, central sulcus, lateral fissure, projection fibers, commissural fibers, corpus callosum, association fibers, and all of the lobes.

23. In terms of the functional areas of the cortex, differentiated between sensory, motor, and sensory areas. List and describe the major sensory and motor areas of the cortex.

24. Describe the basal ganglia and state their function.

25. State the function of the internal capsule.

26. Describe the major areas of the diencephalon and state the general functions of each area.

27. Describe the limbic system and state its functions. List all of the brain parts that contribute to it.

28. Describe the principal components of the mesencephalon and state their functions.

29. Describe the pons and state its functions.

30. Explain the anatomy of the cerebellum, its connections to the rest of the brain, and state its functions.

3l. Describe the location of the medulla oblongata and list its functions.

32. Explain what the reticular formation is, where it is found, and what functions are associated with it. What is the RAS?

33. Explain what is meant by hemisphere localization. List the functions which are associated with the left and right hemispheres.

34. List the functions of the spinal cord. Define cauda equina, filum terminale, conus medularis, spinal segment. Label a cross section of the cord including the dorsal and ventral roots, dorsal root ganglion, anterior and posterior columns, central canal, posterior horn, posterior median sulcus, posterior funiculus, lateral funiculus, anterior funiculus, gray commissure, and anterior horn.

35. List the l2 pairs of cranial nerves in order. State which are sensory, mixed, or mostly motor. State the principal structures innervated by each.

36. List the spinal nerves by region. State the number of pairs in each region.

37. Label and describe a typical spinal nerve including the dorsal and ventral ramus.

38. Define peripheral nerve. Explain what a nervous plexus is. List the four major plexuses and the body regions which they supply with peripheral nerves. State which spinal nerves contribute to each plexus.

39. Describe the basic organizational pattern of the nervous system including all five components.

40. Differentiate between reflexive and voluntary movement.

4l. Label and explain a diagram of a monosynaptic reflex. State where they are found in the body.

42. Label and explain a diagram of a polysynaptic (three neuron) reflex. Give and example of one found in the body.

43. Explain reciprocal innervation. Label a diagram showing it.

44. Label a diagram of the crossed extensor reflex. Explain when it is used in the body.

45. Explain the influence of higher centers on reflexes.

46. Describe the corticospinal tracts. Be sure you can differentiate between the lateral and ventral tracts, including where they cross over.

47. Describe the extracorticospinal tracts. Explain how they differ from the corticospinal tracts. Name three principal ones.

48. Explain the difference between short term and long term memory. Describe the proposed mechanisms for both short term and long term memory.

49. Explain the relationship between the RAS and sleep. Differentiate between NREM sleep and REM sleep. Which occurs first? How do they alternate? In which do we spend the most time? How does our physiological state vary in each one?

50. State the function of the ANS. List and describe the two basic divisions.

5l. Describe the anatomy of the sympathetic division. Be sure to include preganglionic and postganglionic fibers, prevertebral ganglia, collateral ganglia, rami, splanchnic nerves, and plexuses.

52. List and describe the three major sympathetic plexuses and list the organs which each innervates.

53. Describe the anatomy of the parasympathetic division. Be sure to include the cranial nerves that supply preganglionic fibers. List the parasympathetic plexuses.

54. List the neurotransmitters of the ANS and the fibers that release them. Differentiate between adrenergic , cholinergic, and nitroxidergic.

55. Define receptors. Explain the significance of receptors. List the acetylcholine receptors and where they are found.

56. List and describe the norepinephrine and epinephrine receptors.

57. Describe the general affects of the ANS on target organs. Differentiate between the general effects of the sympathetic division and those of the parasympathetic division.

59. List and describe the effects of each division of the ANS on the tissues listed in lecture.

60. Explain how the ANS functions in the maintenance of homeostasis.

6l. Explain the role of the hypothalamus in the functioning of the ANS.

62. Describe the mechanisms by which the ANS regulates body temperature.

63. Describe the mechanism of fever. Define pyrogens and anti-pyretics. Explain generally how each works.

64. Describe the process of biofeedback and its relationship to autonomic functioning.

65. Describe the conditions of cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, Alzhiemer’s disease, BSE, and epilepsy. Be sure you can describe the three types of epilepsy.

66. Describe the sensory unit including all three components.

67. List and describe the three broad categories of receptors.

68. Explain what is meant by transduction and adaptation. Differentiate between receptor adaptation and CNS adaptation.

69. State the law of specific nerve energies.

70. Describe generator potentials and relate them to receptor activity.

71. Describe the cutaneous senses. List the receptor types which respond to touch, pressure, temperature. and pain.

72. Describe the spinothalamic tracts. What kind of information do they conduct?

73. Explain what the function of proprioreceptors is. List and describe the three main types of proprioreceptors.

75. Explain and describe the senses of smell and taste.

76. Describe the anatomy of the eye including all of the structures discussed in lecture. Be able to state the function of each structure.

77. Explain how the eye focuses an image on the retina.

78. List the types of photoreceptors and the functions of each.

79. Describe the anatomy of the ear. Be sure to include all relevant structures in the outer, middle, and inner ears.

80. Explain the mechanism of hearing.

81. List and describe the functions of those components of the inner ear used in equilibrium.

82. Describe the pathologies of myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism, glaucoma, cataracts, deafness, and vertigo.


The final examination will consist of 120 questions over course material plus 10 from the science module.







General Information 

    l.  Laboratory attendance is mandatory.  Students will have one point removed from their  laboratory test grades (all three 

tests) for each laboratory session missed without a valid 


    2.  Laboratory examination are practical in nature and based upon the learning objectives included with this syllabus.  Each

laboratory  examination will be fill-in-the-blank with occasional short essay questions.  Three such examinations 

will be given.

3. Room 350 is the biology study center. Students will find laboratory materials, books, slides, specimens, and other study aids. Most of the materials which you will be tested on can be found in the study center.

  1. The laboratory involves the use of dissections of animals and animal parts as well as experiments using human and/or animals. Students are expected to participate in all of these activities. Students who refuse to participate can expect to have their course grade reduced appropriately as determined by the instructor.
  2. Your laboratory manual has a web site for review and testing on the exercises. The address is as follows.


Laboratory Rules

1. Surgical gloves must be worn when dissecting preserved specimens or when conducting exercises involving body fluids (blood, urine, saliva).

2. Dispose of all tissues and dissected specimens only in the appropriate buckets provided. Do not wash tissues into the drain. All dissecting pans should first be cleaned with a paper towel and then washed.

3. Non disposable glassware which has come into contact with blood should first be washed and then placed into the disinfectant bowls provided.

4. Used blood lancets, capillary tubes, and any other disposable glass that has come into contact with blood should be placed into the Sharps containers which have been provided.

5. All other broken glass should be placed into the appropriate container. Do not put broken glass into the trash cans.

6. Be sure that the laboratory is cleaned up prior to leaving. This means, in addition to the preceding rules, that all trash should be disposed of, equipment should be cleaned and place in its appropriate place, and work areas should be wiped down with wet towels.

7. Violation of the above rules can result is dismissal from this class and course.







Microscopy. Slide Box survey



Basic chemistry



Cells and Mitosis, Film: Living cell.



Osmosis and cell membrane integrity. Film: Cytology and Cell: DNA.


8 - 12



8 - 12

Histology and Integumentary system





13 - 16



13 - 16







Skeletal muscle contraction. Film: Dynamics of Muscle contraction



Nervous system. Film: Nerve impulse. Videotape: Neuroanatomy


21 and 22

Eye. Film: Eye and seeing. Ear: Film: Ear and Hearing





Clean up and review


Laboratory examinations

All laboratory examinations will be practical in nature. All questions will be derived from the learning objectives. Tests will be fill in the blank and/or short essay. Normally there will be 66 or more questions on each test. Students who complete the lab reports for the assigned exercises and turn them into the instructor on the laboratory test day will have five points added to the laboratory test grade.


Upon completion of the assigned laboratory work you should be able to accomplish the following items.

1. Answer all of the questions in the laboratory reports for the assigned exercises.

2. Calculate total magnification of any combination of objective and oculars.

3. State the effect of closing down the diaphragm on image brightness, contrast, and resolution.

4. Be able to identify epithelial cells from the cheek when shown them. Be sure you can identify the nucleus.

5. Be able to label a typical cell such as the one which is presented on page 37 of your laboratory textbook.

6. Be able to identify all of the stages of mitosis on the whitefish

blastula when shown them.

7. Be able to answer all of the questions concerning osmosis in the handout sheet exercise.

8. Be able to interpret a graph similar to the ones constructed in the osmosis laboratory exercise.


9. Be able to identify the following tissues and structures when show them. Answer all of the questions in exercises 7 through 10.

simple squamous epithelium cuboidal epithelium

columnar epithelium goblet cells

stratified squamous epithelium transitional epithelium

pseudostratified columnar epithelium cilia

elastic fibers collagenous fibers

fibroblasts adipose

areolar connective dense fibrous connective

hyaline cartilage fibrocartilage

elastic cartilage lacunae

bone osteon (Haversian system)

haversian canal canaliculi

lamellae smooth muscle

skeletal muscle cardiac muscle

intercalated disks neurons

glial cells sebaceous gland

sweat gland (tubular) hair follicle



Upon completion of the assigned laboratory work you should be able to accomplish the following items.

1. Answer all of the questions in the laboratory reports for the assigned exercises.

2. Identify the bones and bone markings listed below. Be able to locate those noted by an asterisk on your own body or someone else’s body. Refer to both your lecture textbook and your laboratory text.



Frontal* supraorbital foramen

Parietal* sagittal suture

coronal suture temporal*

squamous suture external auditory -

- meatus

styloid process zygomatic process*

mastoid process* mandibular fossa

jugular foramen carotid canal

stylomastoid foramen internal acoustic -

- meatus

occipital* lambdoidal suture

foramen magnum occipital condyles

sphenoid* greater wings

superior orbital fissure sella turcica

lesser wings optic foramina

pterygoid processes supraorbital ridges

foramen rotundum foramen ovale

foramen lacerum foramen spinosum

ethmoid crista galli cribiform plate

middle nasal conchae


mandible* body*

rami mandibular condyle

coronoid process angle*

mental foramina alveoli

mandibular symphysis maxillae*

palatine process infraorbital foramina

palatine zygomatic*

lacrimal nasal*

vomer inferior conchae


Fetal skull

frontal fontanel sphenoidal fontanel

occipital fontanel mastoid fontanel

Vertebral column

intervertebral disks body

vertebral arch vertebral foramen

transverse processes

intervertebral foramen cervical vertebrae

atlas axis

odontoid process thoracic vertebrae

lumbar vertebrae sacrum*

sacral foramina coccyx


sternum* body (gladiolus)*

manubrium* xiphoid process


Shoulder girdle

scapula* acromion process

coracoid process glenoid fossa

clavicle *

Arms and hands

humerus* deltoid tuberosity trochlea

capitulum coronoid fossa

olecranon fossa radius*

radial tuberosity ulna*

coronoid process olecranon process*

semilunar notch styloid process*

carpals* metacarpals*


Pelvic girdle

os coxae* ilium*

ischium pubis

obturator foramen acetabulum

Legs and feet

femur* greater trochanter

lateral and medial condyles tibia*

tibial tuberosity* patella*

medial malleolus* fibula*

lateral malleolus* tarsal*

calcaneus talus

metatarsals* phalanges*

3. Be able to distinguish between a male and female based upon the skulls only.


Upon completion of the assigned laboratory work you should be able to complete the following items.

1. On a slide of teased nerve fibers, be able to identify Schwann cells, axons, and nodes of Ranvier.

2. On a cross section of a nerve, Identify the following structures. Be able to identify the same structures on a longitudinal section of a nerve.


epineurium perineurium

endoneurium fascicle

neurilemma myelin sheath

axon endoneurium

3. Identify the Pacinian corpuscle, its capsule, lamellae, and dendrite.

4. On the slide of neuromuscular junctions, identify the axons, neuromuscular junctions, and skeletal muscle cells.

5. Identify the following structures on the sheep brain.

sulci gyri

cerebrum longitudinal fissure

frontal lobe parietal lobes

temporal lobes occipital lobe

superior colliculi inferior colliculi

corpora quadrigemina pons

medulla oblongata pineal gland

olfactory nerve olfactory bulb

olfactory tract optic nerve

oculomotor nerve trigeminal nerve

corpus callosum diencephalon

fornix intermediate mass

thalamus mammillary body

infundibulum hypophysis

optic chiasma aqueduct of Sylvius

cerebellum medulla oblongata

septum pellucidum gray matter

lateral ventricles third ventricle


6. Identify the following structures on the cross section of the spinal cord.

anterior median fissure posterior median sulcus

anterior horn posterior horn

central canal myelin sheath

axon white matter

gray matter dorsal root

dorsal root ganglion gray commissure

posterior funiculi anterior funiculi

lateral funiculi

7. Answer all of the questions in the laboratory reports for the assigned exercises.

9. Identify the ocular muscles on the model of the eye.

10. Identify the following structures on the sheep eye.

optic nerve cornea

pupil ciliary body

anterior chamber posterior chamber

vitreous chamber retina

sclera lens

optic disk tapetum lucidum

11. On the sagittal section of the eye, locate the same structures as in 10 (except tapetum) plus the three layers of the retina (photoreceptors, bipolar neurons, and ganglion cells), and the fovea


12. Identify the following structures on the cross section of the cochlea.

scala tympani scala vestibuli

scala media basilar membrane

vestibular membrane tectorial membrane

organ of Corti

13. Label a diagram of the ear similar to the one found on page 269 of your laboratory text. Identify the same structures on a model of the ear.