HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
BIOLOGY 2401 AND 2402
Instructor ‑ David S.Smith Office - AC 359
Email email@example.com Phone 733-2695
Catalog Description of the Course
Biology 2401 and 2402 8 semester hours
A course dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the various systems of the human body. The first semester includes the cell, tissues, the skeletal system, muscular system, and nervous system. The second semester includes the blood and circulation, immune response and other defense systems, the respiratory, excretory, endocrine, reproductive, and digestive systems. Fulfills the pre‑nursing requirement in human anatomy and physiology. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Determination of Grades
The final grade of each semester will be determined upon an average basis. Grading is on a 60 to l00 system as follows.
Final Average Course Grade
90 ‑ 100 A
80 ‑ 89 B
70 ‑ 79 C
60 ‑ 69 D
< 60 F
There will be four lecture examinations and three laboratory examinations. All examinations have equal value and will constitute 75% of the final grade. A comprehensive final examination will make up the remainder of the final grade. Completion of the science module is also a course requirement. Students who miss an examination, and have a valid excuse, will be permitted to take a makeup examination. All makeup examinations are given during final examination week or at a time that is convenient with the instructor. Only one makeup examination is permitted. At the end of the semester certain students may find themselves on the borderline between two possible grades (e.g. 79.75). The instructor will then assign a grade based upon his best judgement. Such things as class attendance, attitude, participation in the laboratory, and effort expended on the science module, will be considered. Any student missing three or more classes or who fails to take an examination will not be considered for the higher grade. At the end of the semester any student with a 90% or better average for all seven examinations will be exempt from the final examination.
Completion of the science module is a course requirement. The science module consists of an essay (PSM1) and activities sheet (PSM2). Both are located in the study center. After you have completed the activities sheet return it to the study center director. Students completing the science module by the sixth week will have five points added to their lowest test score. There will be ten questions on the final examination concerning the science module. Students who have previously completed the science module for another class will read several articles dealing with the nature of science (PSM4). These are on reserve in the study center. Upon completion of these articles, a one page written summary of each article will be completed and returned to the study center director.
Textbooks and Required Materials
Course Syllabus - Furnished by instructor.
Marieb, Elaine, Human Anatomy and Physiology, 5e, 2001, Addison Wesley Longman
Davenport, Stephen, Anatomy and Physiology In Focus Laboratory,
MWF 07:30 08:00, 11:30 12:00
TR - 07:30 08:00, 12:30 01:40
Other times by appointment
Copies of lecture examinations (PSM18 - 21) given in past years as well as copies of current lecture notes (PSM17) are available from the study center on a 24 hour checkout basis. Most materials are available online from the Biology Study Center. The address is www.accd.edu/sac/biology/ratorres/printout.htm.
You should write in each test grade in the spaces provided below. You will then be aware of your current average at any time in the course and will be able to calculate your final average and grade at the end of the semester.
1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________
Study Center and Computer Center
Room 350 is the Biology Study Center and provides access to the computer center.. Students may study both lecture and laboratory materials at their own pace in the study center. Computer, videotapes, laboratory, and reference materials are available. Code letters represent the following types of materials. The computer center is available for individual use at times when classes are not scheduled in it.
Students are expected to attend all regularly scheduled lectures and laboratories. A student missing the equivalent of two weeks of work (four TR or six MWF class days) will be dropped from the course unless previous arrangements have been made with the instructor. Note that two tardies count as an absence.
All classes begin promptly at the designated starting time. Students are expected to be in their seats at the beginning of the class period. Two tardies will count as an absence. Students returning late from class breaks during split sessions will be counted tardy. Students are expected to remain for the duration of the class. Any student leaving prior to class dismissal will be counted absent for the entire period. The only exception will be emergencies that occur during the class or prior consent of the instructor.
1. Eating, drinking, and gum chewing are strictly prohibited in the classroom.
2. Cell phones and pagers must be turned off during class.
3. Tape recorders are permitted, but not on days when examination results are being discussed. Any student found recording an examination discussion session will be dismissed from the course with a failing grade.
4. During examinations students are expected to keep their answer sheets covered at all times with the cover sheet provided. Any student who fails to keep his or her answer sheet covered will automatically have ten points removed from their examination grade.
5. Students are expected to remain in the classroom for the entire class period. Any student who finds it necessary to leave the classroom while class is in session will not be permitted to return during that class session.
The highest standards of conduct are expected from all students. Actions by students that detract from the learning environment will not be tolerated. The instructor reserves the right to dismiss any student from class and/or the course who engages in behavior that is disruptive and/or detracts from the learning environment. Such behavior includes (but is not limited to) conducting private conversations during lecture and sleeping in class. Cheating on examinations in any form will result in automatic dismissal from the class with a failing grade. The instructor may also recommend to the appropriate Dean that the student(s) involved be expelled from San Antonio College.
Examinations will normally consist of multiple choice and/or completion type questions. Essay questions may sometimes be included. Exams will usually consist of from 60 to l00 questions. The final examination will consist of l20 questions. All examination questions will be based upon the learning objectives which are included with this syllabus. Students are encouraged to ask questions in class when a point or concept needs clarification. Students who are having difficulty are encouraged to seek help from the instructor either during scheduled office hours or by appointment.
At the end of each set of learning objectives you will find a section entitled "text objectives." These are objectives based upon material found in the text book but not discussed in lecture. The instructor will not answer questions in class concerning these objectives . The instructor will discuss these objectives on an individual basis after class.
The subject of this course is very interesting and one that is very relevant to allied health careers and everyday life. It is a complex subject with a technical vocabulary and numerous principles which must be mastered. Below you will find a series of suggestions which if followed will guarantee successful completion of the course.
l. You have been furnished a lecture outline along with reading
assignments. Before each lecture read over the outline so that you will be aware of the topics to be covered. Use it as an organizational skeleton to arrange your notes around. Use it in conjunction with the learning objectives as a form of review.
2. Read your text assignments before you come to class. It will surprise you how much more you will understand of what is subsequently discussed in lecture.
3. Study very carefully the learning objectives. All examination questions will come from these objectives. Mastery of the objectives will insure mastery of course material. Use the objectives in conjunction with the old examinations which are on file in the study center. In this way you will begin to understand how examination questions are developed from the objectives. You will find it useful to write out the appropriate responses for each objective.
4. Study every day. Do not wait until the night before the examination or you will be overwhelmed. A large amount of materials covered in this course but if you master it as it is covered you will have minimum difficulty. After lecture read through your notes: check your organization. Do you understand everything that was presented? Read the text assignment again (assuming your read it the first time). Examine the learning objectives and see which ones were covered in that particular lecture. After several days read through your notes again. By doing this on a continuous basis you will find that the material becomes fixed in your mind. It takes such a very little time to read through your notes on a daily basis but the results can be dramatic.
5. If you need help, get it. Ask questions in class. Seek out the instructor after class for additional help. San Antonio College has peer tutoring services available. Consult with your instructor if you feel you need a tutor.
6. Form a study group. Three to five students is usually a good size. Work together, quiz each other, and explain concepts to each other. Studies have shown that people retain only about ten percent of what they read, but up to ninety percent of what they explain to someone else!
While your textbook is designed to provide you with basic information concerning this subject, it is by the nature of the printing process, usually out of date by the time it is first published. It is for this reason that weekly or monthly journals are the main method by which new scientific discoveries are disseminated. There are literally thousands of biomedical specialty journals. Most of these are designed for specialists in a given area of research or clinical practice. The journals in the following list are more general in nature and are readily available at most newsstands and public libraries. Students wishing to stay abreast of scientific developments should make it a habit to peruse one or more of these journals.
1. Discovery - This is a popular monthly journal of general science. Frequently topics of a physiological interest are covered. Available at most newsstands, libraries, and by subscription.
2. Natural History - This journal is published by the American Museum of Natural History. It contains a wide variety of articles of biological interest. It is a monthly publication which is available at most news stands, libraries, and by subscription.
3. Science - This is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the largest member scientific society in the world. It contains technical articles which are usually of interest only to specialists, but it also contains review articles and research news written for all audiences. Although it covers all areas of science it has a strong biomedical emphasis. If any discovery in science appears to have major significance, it will appear somewhere in "Science." Published weekly, this journal is available in most libraries.
4. Science News - This little weekly is only about twelve pages long but manages to cover most of the important happenings in science. Written in an engaging and lively style, this may be thought of as the "Readers Digest" of popular science. While this publication is available at most libraries, a subscription is a must for anyone truly interested in keeping current in science.
5. Scientific American - This excellent monthly magazine represents a hybrid of a technical journal and a popular magazine. Each article is written by an expert in the field and represents the current status of knowledge for the subject covered. While each article can supposedly be understood by any literate and educated person, some can be tough going for the non-specialist. This one is always worth looking through. Available at libraries, newsstands, and by subscription.
World Wide Web and Internet
Students have access to the internet and world wide web at both the library and in the biology computer center. There is a wide variety of information available about the subject of this course on line.
SUBJECT TEXT CHAPTER
Unit 16 - Blood 18
A. Functions of blood
2. Water balance
B. Blood volumes
C. Composition of blood
2. Formed elements
c. Formation and regulation of red cells
d. Clinical aspects
f. Clinical aspects
l. Vascular spasm
2. Formation of platelet plug
3. Clot formation
4. Clot retraction
5. Clot dissolution
7. Intravascular clots
E. ABO blood groups
l. Blood types
2. Distribution of groups
3. Genetics of blood groups
F. Rh factor
Unit 17 - Body defense 22
B. Non‑specific defense
l. First line
2. Second line
c. Natural killer cells
C. Specific resistance ‑ third line
l. Types of immunity
3. Antigen receptors
4. Cellular basis of immunity
a. Antigen presenting cells
(l) T helper
(2) T cytotoxic
(3) T suppressor
d. Memory cells
5. Intercellular recognition and communication
b. Structure of Ig
c. Classification of Ig
d. Antibody diversity
e. Functions of Ig
7. Cell mediated immunity
D. Immunity against disease
E. Organ transplantation
F. Autoimmune disease
G. Allergic responses
l. Immediate hypersensitivity
2. Delayed hypersensitivity
H. Tumor immunology
EXAMINATION I. BLOOD AND BODY DEFENSE
Unit 18 - Cardiovascular System - The Heart 19
B. Anatomy of the heart
C. Anatomy of the heart
l. Size and shape
a. Left and right atria
b. Left and right ventricles
c. Wall structure
(l) AV valves
(2) Semilunar valves
5. Path of blood through the heart
6. Coronary circulation C. Physiology of the heart
D. Physiology of the heart
l. Cellular organization
a. Functional syncytium
b. All or none response
2. Action potentials in cardiac muscle
3. Absolute refractory period
4. Origin and conduction of the heart beat
6. Cardiac cycle
7. Cardiac output
c. (l) Heart rate regulation
(a) Nervous control
(b) Hormonal control
(2) Stroke volume regulation
E. Pathologies of the heart
l. Heart attack
2. Congestive heart failure
3. Angina pectoris
4. Risk factors for heart disease
5. Heart blocks
6. Premature beat
7. Heart murmur
Unit 19 - Cardiovascular system - Circulation and Blood Flow
A. General plan of the circulation 20 1. Closed system
2. Dual circulatory system
3. Lymphatic system
4. Pattern of flow
B. Vascular system anatomy
1. Structure of vessels
a. Elastic arteries
b. Muscular arteries
6. Unique or special areas
a. Hepatic portal system
b. Cerebral circulation
c. Fetal circulation
l. Blood flow
b. Factors which affect flow
c. Relationship among flow, pressure, and resistance
2. Blood pressure
a. Expressing pressure
b. Pressure unit
c. Pulse pressure
d. Six factors which affect blood pressure
e. MAP = cardiac output X peripheral resistance
f. Central regulation of blood pressure - nervous
(1) Regulation of peripheral resistance
(a) Vasomotor center
(2) Summary of nervous regulation
g. Central regulation of blood pressure - chemical
3. Local control of blood flow
4. Interaction of central and local control
5. Venous pressure
6. Distribution of blood
7. Exchange of materials between blood and tissues
C. Lymphatic system 21
4. Lymph organs
E. Effects of exercise
EXAMINATION II. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Unit 20 - Respiratory system 23
A. Stages of respiration
B. Anatomy of the respiratory system
l. Nasal cavity
5. Bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
C. Mechanism of ventilation
l. Atmospheric pressure
2. Anatomy of the pleural cavity
5. Summary of pressure changes
6. Prevention of lung collapse
D. Lung volumes
l. Total lung capacity
2. Residual air volume
3. Vital capacity
a. Tidal volume
b. Inspiratory reserve
c. Expiratory reserve
4. Dead air space
5. Minute respiratory volume
6. Alveolar ventilation
E. Respiratory terminology
F. Control of respiration
l. Neural control
a. Major control centers
b. Modulating subcenters
c. Stretch receptors
d. Cerebral effects
2. Chemical control
a. Carbon dioxide ‑ direct effect
b. Oxygen ‑ indirect effect
G. Special reflexes
H. Transport of respiratory gases
l. Factors affecting gas movement
a. Partial pressure
b. Exchange across alveoli
c. Exchange at tissues
2. Transport in blood
a. Oxygen transport
b. Carbon dioxide transport
2. Carbon monoxide
3. Open pneumothorax
7. Pulmonary Edema
8. Cystic fibrosis
J. Effects of aging
Unit 21 - Digestive system 24
B. General anatomy
2. Anatomy of the GI tract wall
a. Tunica mucosa
b. Tunica submucosa
c. Tunica muscularis
d. Tunica serosa
e. Intrinsic nervous plexuses
3. Accessory glands
a. Salivary glands
C. Movement of materials through the tract
D. Control of flow ‑ valves
l. Upper esophageal sphincter
2. Lower esophageal sphincter
3. Pyloric sphincter
4. Ileo‑cecal sphincter
5. Anal sphincter
E. Digestive process
l. Mouth and pharynx
(l) Composition of saliva
(2) Functions of saliva
(3) Regulation of salivation
b. Gastric secretions
c. Control of gastric secretions
3. Small intestine
c. Digestive juices
(l) Pancreatic juice
(b) Control of secretion
(c) Control of secretion
(3) Intestinal juice
(l) Intestinal villi
(2) Mechanisms of absorption
4. Large intestine
4. Peptic ulcer
G. Effects of aging
Unit 22 - Excretion and fluid balance 26
A. Organs of the excretory system
3. Digestive system
4. Urinary system
B. Materials excreted
l. End products of metabolism
2. Plasma excess
C. Excretion and homeostasis
D. Urinary system
2. External anatomy
a. Renal capsule
b. Adipose capsule
c. Renal fascia
3. Internal anatomy
4. Microscopic anatomy ‑ nephrons
a. Bowman's capsule
b. Proximal convoluted tubule
c. Loop of Henle
d. Distal convoluted tubule
e. Collecting tubules
f. Types of nephrons
5. Circulation to the kidney
6. Nephron function ‑ urine formation
7. Composition of final urine
G. Water and electrolyte balance 26, 27
a. Water intake
b. Water output
2. Fluid compartments
3. Sodium and water reabsorption
b. Regulation of sodium reabsorption
(2) Atrial natriuretic factor
c. Water reabsorption
(l) Proximal tubule role
(2) Hairpin, countercurrent multiplier system
c. Calcium and phosphate
l. Diabetes insipidus
3. Kidney stones
k. Effects of aging
Unit 23 - Acid‑Base balance 27
A. Acids, bases, and pH
B. Significance of pH
C. Sources of hydrogen ion
D. Mechanisms of pH maintenance
2. Respiratory control
3. Excretory control
E. Acidosis and alkalosis
EXAMINATION III. RESPIRATION, DIGESTION, EXCRETION, AND ACID BASE
Unit 24 -Endocrine system 17
C. Comparison with nervous system
l. Target tissues
2. Mode of action
3. Response speed
4. Field of control
2. Chemical classes
E. Mechanisms of hormone action
l. Recognition of target cells
2. Transport of hormones in blood
3. General effects of hormones
4. Biochemical affects of hormones on target cells
a. Fixed receptor model - 2d messengers
b. G proteins
(1) Cyclic AMP
c. Gene activation
F. Control of hormone secretion
a. Relationship to hypothalamus
b. Releasing and inhibiting factors
(4) Growth hormone
(6) Melanocyte stimulating hormone
d. Regulation of adenohypophyseal hormone levels
a. Relation to hypothalamus
H. Thyroid gland
a. Control of secretion
b. Effects of over secretion
c. Effects of under secretion
I. Parathyroid glands
3. Summary of calcium regulation
J. Adrenal glands
l. Adrenal medulla
2. Adrenal cortex
c. Sex hormones
d. Over production effects
e. Underproduction effects
4. Control of pancreatic hormones
5. Over production effects
6. Under production ‑ diabetes mellitus
L. Summary of hormonal regulation of blood sugar
M. Heart ‑ Atrial natriuretic factor
O. Digestive tract
P. Pineal gland
Q. Thymus gland
Unit 25 - Reproductive system 28, 29
A. Anatomy of the male
3. Vas deferens
4. Accessory glands
a. Seminal vesicles
c. Bulbourethral glands
B. Sexual response in males
C. Hormonal regulation in males
a. Sexual differentiation
b. Descent of the testes
d. Under secretion and over secretion
D. Anatomy of female
2. Uterine (Fallopian) tubes
5. External genitalia
a. Mons pubis
b. Labia majora
c. Labia minora
6. Mammary glands
E. Sexual response in females
F. Hormonal control in females
G. Menstrual cycle
l. Ovarian cycle
2. Sex hormone production
3. Endometrial changes
4. Cycle details
2. Sex determination
a. Sex differences in cells
b. X chromosome
3. Abnormalities in chromosome number
1. Endocrine functions
L. Other embryonic membranes
2. Yolk sac
O. In vitro fertilization
l. Coitus interruptus
2. Vaginal diaphragm
5. Rhythm method
7. Birth control pill
EXAMINATION IV. ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
Learning Objectives for Examination I.
Upon completion of the lectures and assigned readings, you should be able to accomplish the following tasks.
1. List and describe the functions of blood.
2. State the normal blood volumes of both males and females in
liters and as percentages of body weight.
3. State the two major components of blood.
4. List and describe the components of plasma. Differentiate
between plasma and serum.
5 Define hematocrit and state the normal values for both males and
6. State the normal red count for both males and females.
7. Describe hemopoiesis. Be sure to include the original stem cell and the five progenitor cells which it gives rise to and the mature cells which each of those gives rise to.
8. Describe the structure of the red blood cell and list its
9. Describe the process of erythropoiesis. Explain how it is controlled. Explain the fate of red blood cells.
l0. List and describe the major anemias discussed in lecture.
ll. Explain the condition of polycythemia and possible causes.
l2. Describe the general properties of leukocytes. State the white count for a typical healthy person.
l3. List and describe the 5 types of white cells and the two major classes to which they belong. Describe their structure, origin, and functions. Be sure to include typical percentages for each cell type.
14. Describe leukemia and leukopenia.
l5. Explain the origin of platelets and state their function.
l6. Define hemostasis. List the four major process involved. Explain clot formation for the intrinsic method to the level of detail presented in lecture. Explain how the intrinsic mechanism differs from the extrinsic mechanism. Describe the role of plasmin in clot dissolution.
l7. List two natural anticoagulants found in the body, and two used in blood banking.
l8. Define thrombus and embolus.
l9. List the four ABO blood types with the antigens and antibody associated with each type. Explain what happens when blood is mismatched and the reasons why the reaction occurs.
20. List the percentages of the four ABO blood types found in the U.S. population.
2l. Describe the inheritance of the ABO blood groups including the genetic combinations responsible for each type. Be sure you can predict the possible offspring from any marriage between any blood types.
22. Explain the Rh factor and describe erythroblastosis fetalis as well as the causes for it. Be sure you know the parental types that can lead to this disease.
23. Explain why the rhogam shot prevents erythroblastosis fetalis.
24. Describe the first line of defense of the body against foreign invasion.
25. Describe the process of phagocytosis and its contribution to body defense. List the major groups of cells involved.
26. Describe the RE system.
27. Explain inflammation. Include all of the steps and the cause of each step. List and describe the four cardinal signs of inflammation. List and describe the five major chemical mediators of the inflammatory response.
28. Describe interferon. Explain the areas in which it plays a role in body defense. List the three types of interferon found in the body.
29. Explain the origin and role of NK cells. Explain why fever is now considered to be a body defense.
30. Describe the two major types of immunity.
3l. Define antigen. Explain what types of molecules function as antigens. Describe haptens and how they become immunogenic.
32. Explain in detail the cellular basis of immunity. Be sure to include all of the relevant cell types, APC, T‑helper, T‑suppressor, T‑cytotoxic, B‑cells, plasma cells, and memory cells. Be sure you can detail all of the cellular interactions involved in the processing of an antigen. Explain clonal selection. Explain why the memory immune response is so much more powerful than the initial response.
33. Explain how the cells of the immune system recognize one another and communicate with each other. Be sure to include HLA class I and II antigens and the cytokines. List and describe the function of the cytokines presented in lecture.
34. Describe the structure of immunoglobulins. Be sure in include the constant and variable regions. Be sure you know which region binds antigen. Explain the mechanism for antibody diversity.
35. List and describe the 5 major classes of immunoglobulins. Explain what defines the five different groups.
36. List and describe the major functions of immunoglobulins and the classes which participate in each function.
37. Describe the complement system. Explain what is meant by "fixation of complement." List the six major functions of complement in the immune response. Explain also how complement functions in non-specific defense.
38. Describe cell mediated immunity. List the types of antigen to which CMI responds. Describe a typical CMI response.
39. Describe tolerance and its proposed mechanisms. Be sure you can explain negative selection. Describe another area in which suppressor T cells play a role.
40. Describe the mechanism of immunity against disease. Explain the differences between natural and artificial immunity.
4l. Describe organ transplantation. Describe the bodie's reaction to a grafted tissue that is mismatched. Explain how graft rejection is prevented.
42. Define autoimmune disease. Give four possible reasons for autoimmune disease.
43. Explain why allergies are termed hypersensitivities.
44. Describe a typical immediate hypersensitivity. Explain the role of IgE and Mast cells. Describe anaphylaxis. Explain how it differs from other immediate hypersensitivities.
45. Describe the mechanism of delayed hypersensitivity. Be sure to include the immune cell involved.
46. Describe the immunology of cancer.
l. Describe the structure of hemoglobin.
2. Describe the chemical factors of the surface barriers that repel microorganisms.
3. Describe SCID.
4. Describe how HIV causes collapse of the immune system.
5. List and describe the four categories of allergic responses.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ‑ EXAMINATION II.
Upon completion of the assigned lectures and text readings, you
should be able to accomplish the following tasks.
l. State the function of the cardiovascular system excluding the blood.
2. Describe the basic plan of the circulation including both circuits.
3. Describe the location of the heart.
4. List the four major chambers of the heart and the major vessels that connect to each chamber.
5. Describe the structure of the heart wall, including all three layers.
6. Describe the pericardium.
7. Trace a drop of blood through the heart beginning in the vena cava and ending in the aorta. Be sure to include the valves through which it must pass.
8. List and describe the major valves of the heart and their location. State their function.
9. Describe the chordae tendineae and papillary muscles. Explain their function.
l0. Explain the all or none principle with regards to the heart.
ll. Explain why the heart is considered to be a functional syncytium. Explain the significance of the intercalated discs to this concept. Describe the component of the intercalated discs which allow the free passage of the action potential from cell to cell.
l2. Describe the differences between the refractory period of the heart muscle and that of skeletal muscle. Relate the significance of this difference to the cardiac cycle.
l3. State where the heart beat originates and describe the most probable mechanism for the initiation of depolarization.
l4. State what is meant by "pacemakers."
l5. Describe the conduction systems of the heart including all of the components. Trace the path of depolarization from its origin to the ventricular myocardium.
l6. Explain what happens if the normal pacemaker of the heart is lost.
l7. List the rates that other regions of the conducting system will provide when they function as the pacemaker.
l8. Explain what the EKG measures. Identify the waves of a typical EKG pattern and explain what each signifies. List the kinds of information that can be obtained from an EKG.
l9. Describe in detail the cardiac cycle including the pressure changes that lead to the opening and closing of the valves.
20. Describe the origin of heart sounds and the events responsible for each sound.
2l. Define cardiac output.
22. Describe in detail the regulation of cardiac output. Be sure to include the regulation of both heart rate and stroke volume.
23. List and describe all of the factors affecting both EDV and ESV.
When given an EDV and ESV, be able to calculate the stroke volume.
24. State Starling's law of the heart. Explain what its main
function in the intact animal seems to be.
25. Describe the coronary circulation.
26. List the major risk factors for heart disease. Describe and explain the following heart problems.
a. heart block, partial and total
b. ectopic focus (premature beats or PVC)
c. heart murmur
d. heart attack and fibrillation
e. angina pectoris
f. congestive heart failure
27. Describe fibrillation and defibrillation.
28. Describe the general plan of the circulation.
29. Describe the vascular components including their structure. State the differences in structure between arteries and veins.
30. Describe the differences between elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles.
3l. Define vasodilation and vasoconstriction.
32. Describe the structure of capillary beds. Be sure to include metarteriole and precapillary sphincter.
33. Define portal system. Describe the hepatic portal vessel in detail.
34. Describe the cerebral circulation including all parts of the circle of Willis. Explain the cause of strokes.
35. Describe the fetal circulation. Explain the changes that occur after birth. Trace a drop of blood from the placenta, back to the placenta by the most direct route.
36. Explain why blood flow is faster in the aorta than in the capillaries.
37. List and describe the factors affecting blood flow. Explain the relationship among flow, pressure, and resistance, and, how this relationship can be equate to mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance.
38. Describe the factors that contribute to the resistance to blood flow.
39. Define, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure. Explain what is meant by pulse pressure.
40. List and explain the six factors that affect blood pressure. Why are only two of these factors of significance in the normal regulation of blood pressure?
4l. Describe the regulation of blood pressure. Be sure to include the baroreceptors, vasomotor center, and cardiac control centers. When given a hypothetical elevated or depressed blood pressure, be able to trace the pathways of the physiological mechanisms which will return the pressure to normal.
42. Describe the angiotensin system and explain how it regulates blood pressure.
43. Explain how blood flow can be increased to tissues without alteration of pressure by the central mechanisms.
44. Explain why venous pressure is greater in the feet of a standing person than in their neck.
45. Explain how blood is returned to the heart. Be sure to include all mechanisms.
46. Explain why a person standing at attention for extended periods might faint. Explain why fainting is a protective mechanism.
47. Give the approximate distribution of blood throughout the circulatory system during normal physiological circumstances.
48. Describe in detail how materials are exchanges between the blood and tissues. Be sure to include hydrostatic (blood) pressure and osmotic pressure. Explain how tissue fluid returns to the circulation.
49. Describe the anatomy of the lymphatic system. List the structures which are associate with the lymphatic system. List the three major functions of the lymphatic system. What types of cells are associated with the lymph nodes?
50. What blood pressures are considered to be hypertensive? Why is hypertension dangerous? Differentiate between essential and renal hypertension.
5l. Explain arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis, and explain the health significance of the conditions. Explain the cholesterol connection to atherosclerosis. Be sure to include LDL, HDL, VLDL, and ratio effects.
52. Describe shock. List the symptoms. What are the possible causes?
53. Describe edema and list the possible causes.
54. Describe the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system.
l. Describe the Bainbridge reflex.
2. Describe cardiac catherization.
3. Explain what an aneurysm is.
4. Describe the structure and function of the Mucosal (Gut) Associated Lymphoid Tissue.
5. Describe the effects of aging on the cardiovascular system.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ‑ EXAMINATION III.
Upon completion of the assigned lectures and text readings you should be able to accomplish the following tasks.
l. List the five stages of respiration.
2. Trace a molecule of oxygen through the respiratory tract from the external nares to the alveoli, listing, in order, all of the structures through which it would pass.
3. Describe the anatomy of the nasal cavity and explain its role in the treatment of air.
4. Describe the anatomy of the pharynx. List the three regions and the major structures found in each segment.
5. Describe the anatomy of the larynx. Explain the function of the epiglottis.
6. Describe how sound is made in the larynx, including changes in pitch. Explain hoarseness and laryngitis.
7. Explain the purpose of the cartilage found in the trachea and bronchial tubes.
8. Describe the bronchial tree. Include primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi, terminal bronchioles,and respiratory bronchioles.
9. Describe the structure of the alveoli. Include the alveolar ducts and the respiratory membrane.
l0. Describe the anatomy of the lungs including the lobes and pleural membrane.
ll. Describe in detail the mechanism of ventilation. State the pressure changes that occur during quiet breathing. Name the muscles involved in both inspiration and expiration.
l2. Define the following lung volumes: total lung capacity, residual air volume, vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume. Be able to state typical values for each in both males and females.
l3. Define dead air space, minute respiratory volume, and alveolar ventilation.
l4. Define pnea, eupnea, apnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, and hypopnea.
l5. Explain the nervous control of respiration. Include all of the centers and their interactions. Be able to label a summary diagram of the entire control process.
l6. Describe the effects of the stretch receptors located in the lungs.
l7. Explain the mechanism by which carbon dioxide affects the respiratory center.
l8. Describe how the chemoreceptors affect respiration, and what affects them.
l9. Describe the effects of the cerebral cortex on respiration.
20. Detail the events that occur in the following reflexes: swallowing, coughing, and valsalva.
2l. State Dalton's law of partial pressures and be able to apply it to a hypothetical mixture of gases.
22. Explain the mechanisms of gas exchange in the alveoli and at the tissues.
23. State how oxygen is transported in the blood. Explain what is meant by volume percent. Be able to calculate a volume percentage when given an amount of hemoglobin.
24. List the ways in which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood. Be able to give approximate percentages for each transport method.
25. Describe how carbon dioxide is converted into bicarbonate in the red cell. Make sure you can write all of the reactions involved. Describe the chloride shift and explain why it is necessary.
26. List and describe the pathologies discussed in lecture.
27. Describe the functions of the digestive tract.
28. List the five regions of the digestive tract.
29. Describe the structure of the wall of the digestive tract.
30. List the accessory glands and state their functions. Be sure to include the principal non‑digestive functions of the liver.
3l. Describe how material movement is regulated. Include the two types of movement and the five valves.
32. Describe the process of mastication.
33. Describe the composition, functions, and regulation of saliva.
34. Describe the events of swallowing.
35. List the functions of the stomach, the gastric secretions, and the control of these secretions.
36. List the functions of the small intestine and the major regions.
37. Describe the composition of pancreatic juice and the control of its secretion.
38. Describe liver bile as to composition, functions, and control of secretion.
39. Describe the intestinal juice and how its secretion is controlled.
40. Describe the structure of an intestinal villus. Explain how the villi enhance the absorptive process.
4l. List and describe the major mechanisms of absorption.
42. Describe the anatomy of the large intestine including all of its regions. List its functions and describe its movements.
43. Describe the mechanism and cause of vomiting.
44. Describe the conditions and causes of diarrhea, constipation, and peptic ulcer.
45. List and describe the organs involved in excretion including the primary substances which each excretes.
46. Explain the link between excretion and homeostasis.
47. List and describe the organs of the urinary system.
48. Describe the gross anatomy of the kidney.
49. List the major functions of the kidney.
50. Describe the anatomy of the nephron. Explain why it is considered the functional unit of the kidney.
5l. Describe the circulation of the kidney. Be sure to explain which aspects are unique to the kidney.
52. For filtration:
a. describe where it occurs.
b. list what is filtered and what is not.
c. explain why the glomerulus is much more efficient at filtration than are other capillary beds.
53. Define GFR. Be sure you can list the typical volumes that are filtered in a 24 hour day.
54. Describe reabsorption. Explain the concept of threshold and relate it to Tm. Be able to illustrate the concept using hypothetical examples.
55. Explain the mechanism by which water is passively reabsorbed. Be sure you can explain what is meant by an osmotic gradient.
56. Describe secretion. Compare and contrast it with reabsorption.
List three substances that are secreted.
57. Describe the composition of the final urine and explain the reasons for variations in the various constituents (in a very broad sense).
58. Describe micturition.
59. List the major fluid compartments of the body and the subcompartments.
60. Explain how alteration of the water level in the plasma can alter water levels in the tissue fluid and intracellular fluid.
6l. Describe the sources and principal amounts of water intake as well as the sources and amounts of water output from the body.
62. State the relationship between sodium and water reabsorption. Describe the control of sodium reabsorption.
63. For water reabsorption:
a. describe where the bulk of water is reabsorbed.
b. describe the hairpin countercurrent mechanism.
c. explain how urea is concentrated during the reabsorption process.
d. describe the role of ADH in the process.
e. explain how a hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic urine can be produced.
f. describe the role of the vasa recta in the process.
64. Describe the regulation of chloride and potassium.
65. Describe the conditions of diabetes insipidus, glomerulonephritis, kidney stones, and cystitis. Be sure to include the causes of each.
66. Define diuretics and explain how they work.
67. Describe dialysis.
68. Describe the effects of aging on the kidneys.
69. Define what meant by acid, base, and pH. State the significance of pH to the body. State the sources of hydrogen ion in the body.
70. Describe how buffers resist a change in pH. List three buffers of physiological significance in the body.
7l. Describe the respiratory control of pH. Be sure to use the carbon dioxide ‑ carbonic acid ‑ bicarbonate equation to explain how it occurs.
72. Describe the kidney's role in pH regulation. Describe what is meant by acidosis and alkalosis. List possible causes of each.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ‑ EXAMINATION IV
Upon completion of the assigned lectures and text readings you should be able to accomplish the following tasks.
l. Define endocrine gland. Differentiate a true endocrine gland from paracrine and autocrine.
2. Define target tissue.
3. Describe the function of the endocrine system.
4. Explain why the endocrine system is considered an integrating system.
5. Define hormone and list the classes of hormones.
6. Explain how hormones are transported in the plasma and how they recognize their target tissues. List the major mechanisms by which hormone levels are regulated.
7. Explain the term "second messenger." Explain the role of G-proteins in second messenger systems.
8. List the general effects of hormones. Explain the fixed receptor model and gene activation model of hormone action. Be sure to include the chemical nature of the hormones served by each as well as the final cellular action initiated by each.
9. Compare and contrast the endocrine system and the nervous system.
l0. List all of the parts of the hypophysis and the hormones produced by each part.
ll. Explain how the nervous system exercises control over the endocrine system via the hypothalamic‑hypophyseal portal system.
l2. Describe where the neurohypophyseal hormones are produced and how they are transported to their site of release.
l3. Describe how the levels of the adenohypophyseal hormones in the blood are controlled.
l4. Describe how ADH release is controlled by the osmotic pressure of the plasma.
l5. For each of the endocrine glands listed below, be able to accomplish the following.
a. List all of the hormones produced and their probable mode of action on target cells.
b. List the target tissue for each hormone and the hormones effect on that tissue.
c. The control of the secretion of each hormone.
d. The physiological effects of over and underproduction including the names of conditions where appropriate.
(3) Adrenal cortex
(4) Adrenal medulla
l6. Describe the pineal gland and name the hormone produced by it.
l7. Name the hormone produced by the heart and state its function.
l8. Name the hormones produced by the thymus and state their functions.
l9. List the two hormones produced by the kidney and state their functions.
20. Describe the eicosanoids. List the two major groups and state their general functions.
2l. List all of the components of the male reproductive system, the order in which they occur (beginning with the testes), and the function of each.
22. Describe the anatomy of the testes.
23. Describe the anatomy of the penis. Be sure to include the erectile tissue columns.
24. Explain sexual response in males. Be sure to include the mechanisms of both erection and ejaculation. Include the role of the ANS in your explanation.
25. Describe hormonal regulation in males. Be sure to include the role of the gonadotropins, testosterone, and inhibin. List all of the effects of testosterone, including those which occur at puberty.
26. List all of the components of the female reproductive system, the order in which they occur (beginning with the ovary), and the function of each.
27. Describe the anatomy of the ovary.
28. List and describe the components of the female external genitalia.
29. Describe the anatomy of the breast.
30. Explain sexual response in females. List all of the physiological events that occur.
3l. Describe hormonal regulation in females. Be sure to include the role of the gonadotropins, estrogen, and progesterone. List all of the effects of both estrogen and progesterone, including those that occur at puberty.
32. Explain in detail the female menstrual cycle. Include the maturation of the ovum, hormone changes, and endometrial changes. Be sure you can relate all events together. Include in your explanation primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, corpus luteum, and ovulation. When presented a graph of all events, be able to label each event.
33. Define menopause and explain its probable cause.
34. Describe meiosis and state its significance.
35. Explain the cause of Downe's syndrome. Relate this condition to meiosis.
36. Describe in detail the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis. State the similarities and differences of the two processes.
37. Describe the processes of fertilization, implantation and placentation. Be sure you can explain how polyspermy is blocked.
38. Define what the placenta is. What is its function? Describe the chorion, amnion, umbilical cord, yolk sac, and allantois. Make sure you include the endocrine function of the placenta. Which hormone is the basis of modern pregnancy tests?
39. Describe the process of parturition including the hormonal changes associated with it.
40. Explain how fraternal and identical twins are formed.
41. Describe in vitro fertilization. Explain where the greatest failure rate occurs in the process and possible reasons for this failure.
4l. List and describe the major methods of contraception. Be able to list them in order of their effectiveness.
l. Describe smegma and state its health significance.
2. Describe the anatomy of a spermatozoan.
3. Describe the conditions of impotence and endometriosis.
4. List the three embryonic tissue types and the major organs/systems to which each gives rise.
5. Explain the cytotrophoblast and the syncytiotrophoblast.
The final examination will consists of 110 questions over previous material plus ten questions from the science module/essays.
l. Laboratory attendance is mandatory. Students will have one
point removed from their laboratory test grades (all three
tests) for each laboratory session missed without a valid
2. Laboratory examination are practical in nature and based upon
the learning objectives included with this syllabus. Each
laboratory examination will be fill‑in‑the‑blank with
occasional short essay questions. Three such examinations
will be given.
3. Room 350 is the biology study center. Students will find
laboratory materials, books, slides, specimens, and other study aids. Most of the materials which you will be tested on can be found in the study center.
4. The laboratory involves the use of dissections of animals and animal parts as well as experiments using human and/or animals. Students are expected to participate in all of these activities. Students who refuse to participate can expect to have their course grade reduced appropriately as determined by the instructor.
5. Your laboratory manual has a web site for review and testing on the exercises. The address is as follows.
1. Surgical gloves must be worn when dissecting preserved specimens or when conducting exercises involving body fluids (blood, urine, saliva).
2. Dispose of all tissues and dissected specimens only in the appropriate buckets provided. Do not wash tissues into the drain. All dissecting pans should first be cleaned with a paper towel and then washed.
3. Used blood lancets, capillary tubes, and any other disposable glass that has come into contact with blood should be placed into the Sharps containers which have been provided. Do not Place these items into the disinfectant bowls provided for the microscope slides.
4. All other broken glass should be placed into the appropriate container. Do not put broken glass into the trash cans.
5. Be sure that the laboratory is cleaned up prior to leaving. This means, in addition to the preceding rules, that all trash should be disposed of, equipment should be cleaned and place in its appropriate place, and work areas should be wiped down with wet towels.
6. Violation of the above rules can result is dismissal from this class and course.
WEEK TEXT CHAPTER EXERCISE
l. 24 Differential counts: Film
2. 24 Hematocrit, Coagulation
time, hemoglobin, blood
3. 26, 27 Heart anatomy, heart
sounds, EKG, film ‑ Heart.
4. 28 Arteries and veins, pulse
monitoring, blood pressure.
5. EXAMINATION I
6. 30 Respiratory organs, film
7. 31 Spirometry.
8. 32 Digestive system: film ‑
9. SPRING BREAK
10. 33 Urinary system, urine
tests: students must
furnish a urine
sample. Film ‑ Kidney.
11. EXAMINATION II
l2. 35 Dissection of fetal pig
l3. continued Dissection of fetal pig
l4. 34 Reproduction: Film, Miracle
15. EXAMINATION III.
l6. REVIEW WEEK
LABORATORY LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of the assigned laboratory exercises you should be
able to accomplish the following.
l. Identify all of the different formed elements when shown slides
2. Explain how to prepare a blood smear and perform a differential white cell count.
3. Explain how hematocrit is determined in the laboratory.
4. Explain how to type blood for A, B, O, AB, and Rh.
5. Answer all questions in lab report 24.
6. Identify the following structures on the sheep heart.
L. atrium pulmonary trunk
L. ventricle aorta
R. atrium ligamentum arteriosum
R. ventricle inferior vena cava
tricuspid valve superior vena cava
biscuspid valve chordae tendineae
papillary muscle aortic semilunar valve
pulmonary veins pectinate muscle
coronary sinus moderator band
7. Identify cardiac muscle tissue and intercalated disks.
8. Answer all questions in lab report 26.
9. Define the three principal leads of the EKG.
l0. Calculate the heart rate from a segment of an EKG.
ll. Explain the source of the heart sounds.
12. Answer all questions in exercise 27.
l3. Beginning with the L. ventricle, trace a drop of blood through
all of the major vessels, in order, to the following parts of
the body,and back to the right atrium.
c. brain (occipital lobe)
d. small intestines
l4. Begining at the superior vena cava, trace a drop of blood through the lungs to the left atrium listing all of the parts of the heart and major vessels through which it passes.
l5. Answer all of the questions in exercise 28.
16. Explain how blood pressure is measured using a pressure cuff and stethoscope. Be sure you you can relate the sounds heard to both systolic and diastolic pressure. Explain why sounds are heard.
l7. Identify cross sections of artery and vein when shown them. Be sure you can identfy the three layers.
l. On a cross section of the trachea, identify hyaline
cartilage, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, and
2. In a section of lung tissue identify the alveolus, simple
squamous epithelium, bronchiole, and alveolar duct. Be sure
you can differentiate between a blood vessel and a bronchial
3. Label figure 30.1 or equivalent.
4. Answer all of the questions in exercise 30.
5. Answer all of the questions in exercise 31. Be sure you can identify and calculate all of the lung capacities including FEV1.
6. Label figure 32.1.or an equivalent.
7. Identify the following when show slides of them.
(1) salivary gland
(a) mucous cells
(b) serous cells
(2) circumvallate papilla
(a) taste bud
(l) isles of Langerhans
(2) acinar cells
(3) central ducts
(3) muscularis externa
(6) gastric glands
(7) chief cells
(8) parietal cells
(9) mucous neck cells
d. small intestine
(5) intestinal villi
(6) crypts of Lieberkuhn
(8) Brunner's glands
(5) goblet cells
(2) central vein
8. Answer the questions in lab report 32.
9. Identify the following parts of the sheep kidney.
b. medullary region
c. renal columns
f. renal pelvis
l0. On sections of the kidney identify the following items.
b. Bowman's capsule
e. proximal convoluted tubule
f. distal convoluted tubule
g. loop of Henle
h. renal arteriole
i. medullary ray
ll. Answer all of the questions in lab report 33.
l2. Give the clinical name, and explain the possible causes for the following constituents which might be found in a urine sample. Hint, refer to your lecture textbook.
c. ketone bodies
1. Label figure 34.1 or equivalent.
2. Label figure 34.5
3. Label figure 34.6.
4. On the cross section of a teste identify the following items.
a. Leydig (interstitial) cells
b. seminiferous tubules
d. primary spermatocytes
e. secondary spermatocytes
h. tunica albuginea
5. On sections of an ovary, identify the following structures.
a. germinal epithelium
b. primary follicle
c. growing or secondary follice
d. Graffian follicle
(3) corona radiata
(4) zona pelucida
e. corpus luteum
6. On the cross section of the penis, identify the following
b. corpus spongiosum
c. corpus cavernosum
7. On the cross section of the uterus identify the endometrium and
8. Answer all of the questions in exercise 34.
9. Identify all of the following structures on the fetal pig.
intercostal arteries and veins
common bile duct
superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
external jugular vein
internal jugular vein
brachiocephalic trunk (artery)
common carotid arteries
intercostal arteries and veins
superior mesenteric artery
external iliac arteries
deep circumflex iliac artery
internal iliac arteries
superior mesenteric vein
hepatic portal vein
horns of uterus
body of uterus
oviduct (uterine tubes)